Monday, January 27, 2020
Introduction To Microsoft Word Computer Science Essay Microsoft Word is a non-free commercial word processor designed by Microsoft. It was first released in 1983 under the name Multi-Tool Word for Xenix systems. Subsequent versions were later written for several other platforms including IBM PCs running DOS (1983), the Apple Macintosh (1984), the ATT Unix PC (1985), Atari ST (1986), and Microsoft Windows (1989). It is a component of the Microsoft Office system; it is also sold as a standalone product and included in Microsoft Works Suite. The current versions are Microsoft Word 2010 for Windows and 2011 for Mac. HISTORY In 1981, Microsoft hired Charles Simonyi, the primary developer of Bravo, the first GUI word processor, which was developed at Xerox PARC. Simonyi started work on a word processor called Multi-Tool Word and soon hired Richard Brodie, a former Xerox intern, who became the primary software engineer. Microsoft announced Multi-Tool Word for Xenix and MS-DOS in 1983. Its name was soon simplified to Microsoft Word. Free demonstration copies of the application were bundled with the November 1983 issue of PC World, making it the first program to be distributed on-disk with a magazine. Unlike most MS-DOS programs at the time, Microsoft Word was designed to be used with a mouse, and it was able to display some formatting, such as bold, italic, and underlined text, although it could not render fonts. It was not initially popular, since its user interface was different from the leading word processor at the time, WordPerfect. However, Microsoft steadily improved the product, releasing versions 2.0 through 5.0 over the next six years. In 1985, Microsoft ported Word to the Macintosh. This was made easier by the fact that Word for DOS has been designed for use with high-resolution displays and laser printers, even though none were yet available to the general public. Following the precedents of LisaWrite and MacWrite, Word for Mac added true features. After its release, Word for Macs sales were higher than its MS-DOS counterpart for at least four years. The second release of Word for Macintosh, shipped in 1987, was named Word 3.0 to synchronize its version number with Word for DOS; this was Microsofts first attempt to synchronize version numbers across platforms. Word 3.0 included numerous internal enhancements and new features, including the first implementation of the Rich Text Format (RTF) specification, but was plagued with bugs. Within a few months Word 3.0 was superseded by a more stable Word 3.01, which was mailed free to all registered users of 3.0. After MacWrite, Word for Mac never had any serious rivals on the Mac. Word 5.1 for the Macintosh, released in 1992, was a very popular word processor owing to its elegance, relative ease of use and feature set. Many users say its the best version of Word for Mac ever created. In 1986, an agreement between Atari and Microsoft brought Word to the Atari ST under the name Microsoft Write. The Atari ST version was a port of Word 1.05 for the Apple Macintosh and was never updated. The first version of Word for Windows was released in 1989. With the release of Windows 3.0 the following year, sales began to pick up and Microsoft soon became the market leader for word processors for IBM PC-compatible computers. In 1991, Microsoft capitalized on Word for Windows increasing popularity by releasing a version of Word for DOS, version 5.5, that replaced its unique user interface with an interface similar to a Windows application. When Microsoft became aware of the Year 2000 problem, it made Microsoft Word 5.5 for DOS available for download free. As of November 2010, it is still available for download from Microsofts web site. In 1991, Microsoft embarked on a project code-named Pyramid to completely rewrite Microsoft Word from the ground up. Both the Windows and Mac versions would start from the same code base. It was abandoned when it was determined that it would take the development team too long to rewrite and then catch up with all the new capabilities that could have been added in the same time without a rewrite. Instead, the next versions of Word for Windows and Mac, dubbed version 6.0, both started from the code base of Word for Windows 2.0. With the release of Word 6.0 in 1993, Microsoft again attempted to synchronize the version numbers and coordinate product naming across platforms, this time across DOS, Macintosh, and Windows (this was the last version of Word for DOS). It introduced AutoCorrect, which automatically fixed certain typing errors, and AutoFormat, which could reformat many parts of a document at once. While the Windows version received favorable reviews the Macintosh version was widely derided. Many accused it of being slow, clumsy and memory intensive, and its user interface differed significantly from Word. In response to user requests, Microsoft was forced to offer Word 5 again, after it had been discontinued. Subsequent versions of Word for Macintosh are no longer ported versions of Word for Windows. MICROSOFT WORD 2007 Word 95 for Windows was the first 32-bit version of the product, released with Office 95 around the same time as Windows 95. It was a straightforward port of Word 6.0 and it introduced few new features, one of them being red-squiggle underlined spell-checking. Starting with Word 95, releases of Word were named after the year of its release, instead of its version number. Word 2010 allows more customization of the Ribbon, adds a Backstage view for file management, has improved document navigation, allows creation and embedding of screenshots, and integrates with world web application. WORD FOR MAC 2008 ICON In 1997, Microsoft formed the Macintosh Business Unit as an independent group within Microsoft focused on writing software for the Mac. Its first version of Word, Word 98, was released with Office 98 Macintosh Edition. Document compatibility reached parity with Word 97, and it included features from Word 97 for Windows, including spell and grammar checking with squiggles. Users could choose the menus and keyboard shortcuts to be similar to either Word 97 for Windows or Word 5 for Mac. Unfortunately, Word on the Mac in this and later releases also became vulnerable to future macro viruses that could compromise Word (and Excel) documents. Word 2001, released in 2000, added a few new features, including the Office Clipboard, which allowed users to copy and paste multiple items. It was the last version to run on classic Mac OS and, on Mac OS X, it could only run within the Classic Environment. Word X, released in 2001, was the first version to run natively on, and required, Mac OS X, and introduced non-contiguous text selection. Word 2004 was released in May 2004. It included a new Notebook Layout view for taking notes either by typing or by voice. Other features, such as tracking changes, were made more similar with Office for Windows. Microsoft released patches through the years to eliminate most known macro vulnerabilities from this version. Word 2008, released on January 15, 2008, included a Ribbon-like feature, called the Elements Gallery, that can be used to select page layouts and insert custom diagrams and images. It also included a new view focused on publishing layout, integrated bibliography management, and native support for the new Office Open XML format. It was the first version to run natively on Intel-based Macs. Word 2011, released in October 2010, replaced the Elements Gallery in favor of a Ribbon user interface that is much more similar to Office for Windows, and includes a full-screen mode that allows users to focus on reading and writing documents, and support for Office Web Application. Microsoft Words native file formats are denoted either by a .doc or .docx file extension. Although the document extension has been used in many different versions of Word, it actually encompasses four distinct file formats: Word for DOS Word for Windows 1 and 2; Word 4 and 5 for Mac Word 6 and Word 95 for Windows; Word 6 for Mac Word 97, 2000, 2002 and 2003 for Windows; Word 98, 2001, X, and 2004 for Mac The newer .docx extension signifies the Office Open XML international standardfor Office documents and is used by Word 2007 for Windows, Word 2008 for the Macintosh, as well as by a growing number of applications from other vendors, including OpenOffice.org Writer, an open source word processing program. Microsoft does not guarantee the correct display of the document on different workstations, even if the two workstations use the same version of Microsoft Word, primarily due to page layout depending on the current printer. This means it is possible the document the recipient sees might not be exactly the same as the document the sender sees. During the late 1990s and early 2000s, the default Word document format became a de facto standard of document file formats for Microsoft Office users. Though usually just referred to as Word Document Format, this term refers primarily to the range of formats used by default in Word version 97-2003. Word document files by using the Word 97-2003 Binary File Format implement Object Linking and Embedding structured storage to manage the structure of their file format. OLE behaves rather like a conventional hard drive file system and is made up of several key components. Each Word document is composed of so-called big blocks which are almost always 512-byte chunks; hence a Word documents file size will in most cases be a multiple of 512. Storages are analogues of the directory on a disk drive, and point to other storages or streams which are similar to files on a disk. The text in a Word document is always contained in the WordDocument stream. The first big block in a Word document, known as the header block, provides important information as to the location of the major data structures in the document. Property storages provide metadata about the storages and streams in a doc file, such as where it begins and its name and so forth. The File information block contains information about where the text in a Word document starts, ends, what version of Word created the document and other attributes. Microsoft has published specifications for the Word 97-2003 Binary File Format. Word 2007 and 2010 continue to support the DOC file format, although it is no longer the default. The XML format introduced in Word 2003 was a simple, XML based format called WordprocessingML. Word 2007 introduced a new XML-based file format called Office Open XML. The version of OOXML that Word 2007 supports is the ECMA-376 standard, published by Ecma International. After the release of Office 2007, underwent another round of standardization under the International Organization for Standardization . The standard, has two variants. A Transitional variant is intended for legacy compatibility and is not supposed to be used to produce new documents. A Strict variant is based on ISOs revisions and improvements to the ECMA standard. Word 2010 supports reading and writing Transitional documents but only reading Strict documents. This caused consternation among members of the ISO Office Open XML subcommittee, who claimed that Microsoft was only paying lip service to the standards process. In response, Microsoft says that the Strict schema will be fully supported no later than Office 15, the next major version after Office 2010. In August 2009, Canadian firm issued Microsoft before the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas for infringing on a software involving custom XML in a document.In December 2009, the judgment of the district court was affirmed by the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. An injunction was issued that bans Microsoft from selling copies of Word with the code that infringes on the patent after January 11, 2010. Several days after the court ruling, Microsoft released a mandatory patch that brings the software into compliance with the courts decision. In November 2010 the US supreme court agreed to hear an appeal by Microsoft. Opening a Word Document file in a version of Word other than the one with which it was created can cause incorrect display of the document. The document formats of the various versions change in subtle and phenomenon to the base standard. Formatting created in newer versions does not always survive when viewed in older versions of the program, nearly always because that capability does not exist in the previous version. Rich Text Format, an early effort to create a format for interchanging formatted text between applications is an optional format for Word, that retains most formatting and all content of the original document. Later, after HTML appeared, Word supported an HTML derivative as an additional full-fidelity roundtrip format similar to RTF, with the additional capability that the file could be viewed in a web browser. In February 2007, Sun released an initial version of its ODF plugin for Microsoft Office.Version 1.0 was released in July 2007.Microsoft Word 2007 supports PDF and XPS formats, but only after manual installation of the Microsoft Word has a built-in spell checker, thesaurus, dictionary, Office Assistant and utilities for transferring, copy, pasting and editing text, such as PureText. WordArt enables drawing text in a Microsoft Word document such as a title, watermark, or other text, with graphical effects such as skewing, shadowing, rotating, stretching in a variety of shapes and colors and even including three-dimensional effects, starting at version 2007, and prevalent in Office 2010. Users can apply formatting effects such as shadow, bevel, glow, and reflection to their document text as easily as applying bold or underline. Users can also spell-check text that uses visual effects, and add text effects to paragraph styles. Like other Microsoft Office documents, Word files can include advanced macros and even embedded programs. The language was originally WordBasic, but changed to Visual Basic for Applications as of Word 97. This extensive functionality can also be used to run and propagate viruses in documents. The tendency for people to exchange Word documents via email, USB flash drives, and floppy disks made this an especially attractive vector in 1999. A prominent example was the Melissa worm, but countless others have existed in the wild. Nearly all anti-virus software can detect and clean common macro viruses.. These macro viruses were the only known cross-platform threats between Windows and Macintosh computers and they were the only infection vectors to affect any system in 2007. Microsoft released patches for Word X and Word 2004 that effectively eliminated the macro problem on the Mac by 2006. Words macro security setting, which regulates when macros may execute, can be adjusted by the user, but in the most recent versions of Word, is set to HIGH by default, generally reducing the risk from macro-based viruses, which have become uncommon The program was unable to handle ligatures defined in TrueType fonts those ligature glyphs with Unicode codepoints may be inserted manually, but are not recognized by Word for what they are, breaking spell checking, while custom ligatures present in the font are not accessible at all. Since Word 2010, the program now has advanced typesetting features which can be enabled: OpenType ligatures, kerning, and hyphenation. Other layout deficiencies of Word include the inability to set crop marks or thin spaces. Various third-party workaround utilities have been developed. Similarly, combining diacritics are handled poorly: Word 2003 has improved support, but many diacritics are still misplaced, even if a precomposed glyph is present in the font. Additionally, as of Word 2002, Word does automatic font substitution when it finds a character in a document that does not exist in the font specified. It is impossible to deactivate this, making it very difficult to spot when a glyph used is missing from the font in use. If Mirror margins or Different odd and even are enabled, Word will not allow the user to freshly begin page numbering an even page after a section break. Instead it inserts a mandatory blank page which cannot be removed. In Word 2004 for Macintosh, support of complex scripts was inferior even to Word 97, and Word 2004 does not support Apple Advanced Typography features like ligatures or glyph variants. Word has extensive list bullets and numbering feature used for tables, list, pages, chapters, headers, footnotes, and tables of content. Bullets and numbering can be applied directly or using a button or by applying a style or through use of a template. Some problems with numbering have been found in Word 97-2003. An example is Words system for restarting numbering.The Bullets and Numbering system has been significantly overhauled for Office 2007, which is intended to reduce the severity of these problems. For example, Office 2007 cannot align tabs for multi-leveled numbered lists. Often, items in a list will be inexplicably separated from their list number by one to three tabs, rendering outlines unreadable. These problems cannot be resolved even by expert users. Even basic dragging and dropping of words is usually impossible. Bullet and numbering problems in Word include: bullet characters are often changed and altered, indentation is changed within the same list, bullet point or n umber sequence can belong to an entirely different nest within the same sequence. Users can also create tables in MS Word. Depending on the version, Word can perform simple calculations. Formulas are supported as well. As mentioned in Creating Tables, MS Word supports the use of formulas. To The formula function is on the ribbon in the Data section. Click on the Formula icon to open the Formula Dialog box. At the top of the Formula box is a place to enter a formula. Formulas use a similar convention as that used in Excel. Cell references use the reference style. Formulas are written using cell references Word tables dont display column and row, the address must be determined by counting the number of columns and rows. For example, cell appears three columns from the left and four rows down. Once cell addresses are known the formula can be written. Optional Microsoft Word in program called Formula Builder provides cell references in a number of different ways so the user doesnt have to determine it by counting columns and rows. For example, cell references may be added to a formula by double-clicking the cell. As an alternative to using actual cell references as the arguments in the formula, you can use instead which adds a range of cells. There are limitations to this method. The cells in the range must not be empty and they must contain numeric values otherwise the calculation will not include the entire range expected. Another problem is that doesnt recognize negative numbers when the number is surrounded by parenthesis and as a result does not calculate correctly. Word also adds the heading row if it contains a numeric value provided the cells in the range are contiguous and all contain values. AutoSummarize highlights passages or phrases that it considers valuable. The amount of text to be retained can be specified by the user as a percentage of the current amount of text. According to Ron Fein of the Word 97 team, Auto Summarize cuts wordy copy to the bone by counting words and ranking sentences. First, AutoSummarize identifies the most common words in the document and assigns each word the more frequently a word is used, the higher the score. Then, each sentence by adding the scores of its words and dividing the sum by the number of words in the sentence the higher the average, the higher the rank of the sentence. Its like the ratio of wheat to chaff explains Fein. CONCLUSION To conclude with ms office one of the main set up which busy people are using todays world. Microsoft Word is a non-free commercial word processor designed by Microsoft.
Posted by J at 6:43 PM
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Essentials of Business Management When Sam Walton opened the first Wal-Mart store in 1962, it was the beginning of an American success story that no one could have predicted. A small-town merchant who had operated variety stores in Arkansas and Missouri, Walton was convinced that consumers would flock to a discount store with a wide array of merchandise and friendly service. Hence, Wal-Mart's mission is to deliver big-city discounting to small-town America. Sam's Roots From humble, hard-working roots, Sam Walton built Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. into the largest, fastest-growing, and most profitable retailer in the world. A child of the Depression, Sam always worked hard. He would milk the cows, and by the age of eight, he started selling magazine subscriptions. When he turned 12, Sam took on a paper route that he continued well into his college days to support himself. Walton began his retail career at J.C. Penney in Des Moines, Iowa in 1940 making just $75 per month. In 1945, Sam borrowed $5,000 from his wife and $20,000 from his wife's family to open a Ben Franklin five and dime franchise in Newport, Arkansas. In 1950, he relocated to Bentonville, Arkansas and opened a Walton 5 . Over the next 12 years they built up and grew to 15 Ben Franklin Stores under the name of Walton 5 . Sam had plenty of new ideas. He liked to deal with the suppliers directly so he could pass the savings on to the customers. He later brought a new idea to Ben Franklin management that they should open discount stores in small towns. They rejected his idea. The First of 3054 Sam and his brother James (Bud) opened their first Wal-Mart Discount City store in Rogers, Arkansas in 1962. Walton and his wife Helen had to put up everything they had, including their house and property to finance the first 18,000 square-foot store. With gradual growth over the next eight years, they went public in 1970 with only 18 stores and sales of $44 million. While other large chains lagged behind, Wal-Mart soon grew rapidly in the 1970's, due to their highly automated distribution centers and computerization. By 1980, they were up to 276 stores with revenues of over $1.2 billion. Sam Walton's guiding philosophy for his stores from the beginning was to offer consumers a wide selection of goods at a discounted price. The company saved money by keeping advertising costs low... ...equests for no publicity. The Ten Commandments of Leadership by Sam Walton 1. Commit to your goals. 2. Share your rewards. 3. Energize your colleagues. 4. Communicate all you know. 5. Value your associates' contributions. 6. Celebrate your success. 7. Listen to everyone. 8. Deliver more than you promise. 9. Work smarter than others do. 10. Blaze your own path. Bibliography 1. Jon Heuy. Sam Walton: Made in America: My Story (New York: Doubleday, 1992) 2. Kenneth E. Stone, Competing With the Retail Giants, (Toronto: John Wiley & Sons Inc. 1995) 3. Vince, H. Trimble, Sam Walton: The Story Inside America's Richest Man (New York: Dutton, 1990) 4. www.SmartLeadership.com 5. Inc Magazine, Spies Like Us, Stemberg, Tom, with Gruner, Stephanie. August, 1998, p45-48 6. Inc Magazine, The Mentors, Welles, Edward O. June, 1998, p48-50 7. www.walmart.com 1996, 1997, 1998 Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. 8. Stone, Kenneth E. Competing With the Retail Giants. (New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1995) 9. Taylor, D., Archer ,J.S. Up Against the Wal-Marts. (New York: AMACOM, 1994) 10. Microsoft Encarta 98. Samuel Walton
Posted by J at 3:06 PM
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Eventually, due to many reports of violence and killings being associated with DÃ¢â¬â¢Andrea, he decided to withdraw from politics instead of his political ambitions being linked with blood shedding. Immediately after his withdrawal from politics, he and his friend started receiving death threats. On May 11, 1921, as DÃ¢â¬â¢Andrea was moving to his home with who used to be his bodyguard, they parted well and on reaching his doorsteps, he was attacked and suffered internal bleeding. Other incidences of violence which were politically oriented were witnessed in Chicago city after Merriam Charles who was a professor lost in the elections of Chicago reforms. He made it clear that Chicago was the most corrupt city in America. Until the times of Cermark, the issue of one monolithic was no more, but instead establishment of a collection of mini machines. Such machineries were controlled by prominent political factotums who dispensed their jobs in favor to their home constituents in return due to their loyalty on the material election date. An aldermanÃ¢â¬â¢s clout purely depended on liability of political structures and schemes to have his vote delivered. In this city, the question of either winning or losing never rose to the politicians but the organizations definitely won the battles through all means because always the court was based on pluralities. (Write here AuthorÃ¢â¬â¢s name)Could you write here authorÃ¢â¬â¢s name please? Introduction. The ChicagoÃ¢â¬â¢s criminal reputation preceded long the wars between beer and Al Capone. Although they were born during the same year as sensationalists, AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s new and penny press fear of a masteries working class, the city was perceived even to its earliest observers as a hotbed of immorality and criminal events. Cases of theft murder, rape and crimson among other mayhems became the townÃ¢â¬â¢s breaking news in most of the media services. According to the cities complain that the business stealing horses had been reduced to a regular system in 1840, the tribune echoed the perception of the countless Chicagoans (Wirth 1965, p.77). Within the course of the same year, around 2,500 citiesÃ¢â¬â¢s first hangings were reportedly and confirmed. As the time went on, observers from both beyond and within the city continued to note the existence of identifiable events of crime under ward. In the democrat ward, it was still getting to be notorious fact that pickpockets, thimble, robbers, three-shell game players and broad cases of sly tricks application to cheat become perfectly in the city. The criminal reputation in the city was enhanced by the visibility of vice (Brumer 1969, p.28). Within a half centuryÃ¢â¬â¢s period, more cases of gambling were reported in the city than the larger city of Philadelphia and more per capita than in New York. The vice was first concentrated in a certain area along the river of Chicago known as the Ã¢â¬ËpatchesÃ¢â¬â¢ where by the tribune interpreted it as the most beastly sensuality and darkest place of criminal events. The cityÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation was also wicked as many people witnessed the fire of that time as divine retribution which was against a modern day of Sodom and Gomorrah. The case of lawlessness after the conflagration provided no cause for optimism. One of the newspapers called the city reported that the entire city was infested with groups of burglars, thieves and cut-throat, bent on plunder and also murdered. The fire did not show any sense of redemption whereby the ChicagoÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation darkened with time. As a result of existence of the image of lawlessness, violent labor dispute crisis increased especially with the Hay market crisis (Davis 1960, p.78). Understanding Political Violence. There is more to the modern political regions than the political religions and rituals sematics as it is assumed regarding to National Socialism and other regimes in totalitarian. Political style and other ideologies do not matter although they provide an answer to as how dead certainty came to be achieved by the ultimate mission. The revolutionary terror furies and sacrifice of the national revivalism give provision that in the current world, it is the region that is in violence but not the violence in region. Human rights violations, including the torture, kidnappings and murder were the daily phenomenon in Chicago city in 1920th. It had become a normal issue that disappearances and murder of labor leaders, kidnapping, union organizers and leftists to be increase especially during the events of politics. According to the research, many people were assassinated as a result of politically motivated killings in the country. Political violence and social change should be considered as the major factor as a breeding ground for violence. The focus should be to the armed organizations mainly the terror perpetrators who are not within the military operations. The aspect of how the political and economic situations in different social strata and how they link with violence should also is considered. Both armed organizations and terror contribute to economic decline. Armed conflicts are more common in the transitional societies like Chicago than in advanced countries (Green 19995, p.65 ). The killing of the vice leader by the name Jim Colosimo in the year 1920 which was the first year of prohibition, indicated a new phase in ChicagoÃ¢â¬â¢s violence. The violent bloodily a beer wars between the year 1924 and 1930 made Al Capone very famous and the city synonymous with a new phenomenon of gangsterism. Notoriety in Chicago city grew due to series of violent incidences including; the 194 violent shooting of gang leader Dion O. Banion in his flower shop in North side, 1926 machine gunning of Hymie Weiss near the Holy Name Cathedral, 1929 Saint ValentineÃ¢â¬â¢s Day massacre which was done to seven people in a clerk street garage. These cases were very widely reported in the international press and also became the incidents of subjects of the popular contemporary plays and books (Haller 1973, p.254). Political Violence and Gangsters. To outline how politics contributed to violence activities in Chicago in 1920th, ChicagoÃ¢â¬â¢s Union Siciliana elaborates how the decade was marked with series of slaughter. The organization of Unione siciliana was like a mafia group which was very mysterious. It was composed of the Camorra and the Black Hand. This organization was among thousands of fraternal organizations established in America for the purpose of mutual benefit in the societies. It was organized in the Chicago city and had limitations in membership. Depending with the organizations rules, the natives from other countries were interested to join and they were allowed, whereby at the end of first world war, there were many lodges of non Sicilians among them being Tuscan lodge, the Ventiam lodge, the Roman lodge and many more (Mc Garry 2004, p.556). The Union had no leadership but only membership. The leadership of Unione siciliana was exclusivity a stone in the shoe in most infamous gangs always. Al Capone whose heritage was in Neapolitan was associated with the responsibility of the killings of the most Unione Siciliana leaders during the 1920s due to their gang allegiances. Within the decade of 1920s, Anthony DÃ¢â¬â¢Andrea was appointed as the leader of the ChicagoÃ¢â¬â¢s Unione Siciliana. Being born in Sicily, Anthony was a graduate from Palermo University who was a linguist and at the same time, he had studied priesthood. In the year 1902, he was convicted due to counterfeiting and forced to serve 13 months in the prison. In 1903, a former student of DÃ¢â¬â¢Andrea interceded on his behalf whereby Anthony was pardoned by the president Theodore Roosevelt. In Chicago, Anthony DÃ¢â¬â¢Andrea was known as the former power in the old red light district because in his early teens he was linked as being in connection to a certain gang of Italian counterfeiters and also bank robberies that based operations throughout the country. During this time, Ignacio who was also called Lupo the wolf Saietta was put under arrest in the city of New York and imprisoned. On the other hand Anthony and Frank Milano were also involved in counterfeiting and apprehended in Cleveland and both charged. This indicated that the Italian underworld criminals may have been networking together for long time prior to prohibition (Merriam 1929, p.78). When Anthony DÃ¢â¬â¢Andrea was released from prison in the year 1903, he proceeded to Chicago and settled in the so called 19th ward. He was interested with politics and joined local unions. DÃ¢â¬â¢AndreaÃ¢â¬â¢s Brother Joseph who was the president in the Sewer Diggers was later involved in the Peon system of extorting money from the Italian robberies. As a result, he was murdered on the canal street during a labor quarrel as they were budding the UnionÃ¢â¬â¢ station. Consequently, it was noted that his brother Anthony DÃ¢â¬â¢Andrea would take his position of a presidency. John powers had been the Alderman and the democratic political boss in the 19th ward since the year 1888 had won the AldermanÃ¢â¬â¢s post in the ward for 16 elections consecutively (Shapiro 1988, p.143). It is from this time when the ward transformed from predominately Irish to around 80 percent Italian. Most of the democrats started to look for Italian democrat to represent them whereby Diamond Joe was the representative of Italian republican voters within the ward. Earliest on, the split between powers and DÃ¢â¬â¢Andrea had been noticed in 1915. The difference was due to each one of them supporting a different mayor candidate. In 1916, DÃ¢â¬â¢Andrea presented himself for the Democratic nominations against powers picked candidate James Bowler. In the same year, a Bowler supporter was killed in a Taylor street saloon. Police from streets of Maxwell claimed Lombardi BowlerÃ¢â¬â¢s killing as being just the latest addition to Black Hand toll. On the same month, ChicagoÃ¢â¬â¢s daily tribune printed an article with title that, police on guard in two homes in Mafia terror (Hagan 1978, p.112). According to the article, it indicated that police had full confidence that the killing was as a result of Sicilian feud as it was opposed to the 19th ward political war. According to John Landesco with organized crime in Chicago, he declared that DÃ¢â¬â¢Andrea was the elected as the Unione SicilianaÃ¢â¬â¢s president which was one of the strongest organizations of foreign groups in America. When power noticed his defeat, he tired to make peace with DÃ¢â¬â¢Andrea whereby DÃ¢â¬â¢Andrea accepted to support powers for adremanÃ¢â¬â¢s position. The Supreme Court of Illinois however voided the election results and Powers took the position. When these events turned, there was a declaration of political war to the death (Gosnell 1937, p.432). On September 28, 1920, an explosion of bomb was witnessed on the porch of Alderman PowerÃ¢â¬â¢s residence. Powers political rivals claimed that, Powers was keeping the house on Alister place so they intended him to claim residency within his 19th ward. Sometime after the explosion, Anthony DÃ¢â¬â¢Andrea was recorded announcing his candidacy as a non partisan for aldermanÃ¢â¬â¢s position in that 9th ward. On the Feb. 11, 1921 just eleven days before the elections of the aldermanic, another powerful explosion of bomb was evident at Anthony DÃ¢â¬â¢AndreaÃ¢â¬â¢s political rally in the building on the Avenue of Blue Islands. After the incidence, Alderman Powers was the most sympathetic man. In response to these incidences, the Illinois stateÃ¢â¬â¢s Attorney Robert E. who for long had proved to be a person of integrity reacted to the bombing incidences through vowing to have new state bill. He declared that, whoever was to be caught with bombing cases would serve for 25 years in penitentiary with death sentence as the maximum punishment. He also added that whoever who was to be caught placing a bomb where it can endanger children or women would be hanged. Chicago city had very tough and terrible conditions in the nineteenth ward. The gunmen were patrolling all over in the streets. Many bump off and kidnapping threats were being offered to DÃ¢â¬â¢Andrea while his supporters were being threatened and slugged. Gunmen and cutthroats had been imported from Buffalo and New York due to campaign intimidation. Within less than one week later, on the Feb. 18th, an explosion was made at the home of DÃ¢â¬â¢AndreaÃ¢â¬â¢s territorial area which adversely spoiled DÃ¢â¬â¢AdreaÃ¢â¬â¢s political offices of campaign headquarter. Immediately after each occurrence of bombing, Powers covered himself through posting $2,000 as a reward to capture and arrest the concerned perpetrators (Lesswell 1939, p.87). On the elections day in Feb. 22, 1920, security officers were ready very early in full force throughout Chicago city. They succeeded to arrest around 150 men during the day time. The most notorious one was Edward O Donnell who was the leader of a certain gang in southern sides. The dayÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest catch included that of dynamite. In the area where the law enforcement officers called the headquarter for pre-election bomb outrage in the 19th ward, the security officers managed to raid a certain farm near the 71st street and the Avenue Central park. They were able to collect around 200 pounds of uncovered dynamite and many sacks of blasting powder indicating that those were the major bomb manufacturing centers. From the residence, two men were arrested (Wirth 1973, p.99). Within the 19th ward, more than 450 police officers were stationed. Before noon on the same day, 50 violators were under the police custody. In surprise, despite the fact that many security officers were put in place, three people from the camp of powers including the election judge and the precinct captain had already been kidnapped in the morning section. Power emerged as the winner by a slim margin of only 435 votes. This however did not put to an end the criminal activities and war. In less than just three weeks after conducting the elections, two precinct captains of Powers where killed mercilessly by gangsters. On March 9th, 1920 at around 9 in the morning section, Bailiff A. who was a municipal court Deputy was attack by two bandits as he walked to work. Just a few distant from that scene the same man was attacked again and hit nine times to death. After the murder of Bailiff A, another man by the name Raimond was also murdered while in his store of cigar on Taylor Street. After the incidence, two of the killers ran from the store and dropped one of the murder weapons on sidewalk. It was immediately speculated that most of the gunmen who were involved in the two killing were imported from New York. On April, 12 of the same year, DÃ¢â¬â¢Andrea who used to carry a gun for his own safety purposes was arrested after a social club was raided where the gun was found in his pocket. Also several men were arrested for being found gambling in the club (Woodiwiss 2001, p.71). Eventually, due to many reports of violence and killings being associated with DÃ¢â¬â¢Andrea, he decided to withdraw from politics instead of his political ambitions being linked with blood shedding. Immediately after his withdrawal from politics, he and his friend started receiving death threats. On May 11, 1921, as DÃ¢â¬â¢Andrea was moving to his home with who used to be his bodyguard, they parted well and on reaching his doorsteps, he was attacked and suffered internal bleeding. Other incidences of violence which were politically oriented were witnessed in Chicago city after Merriam Charles who was a professor lost in the elections of Chicago reforms. He made it clear that Chicago was the most corrupt city in America. Until the times of Cermark, the issue of one monolithic was no more, but instead establishment of a collection of mini machines. Such machineries were controlled by prominent political factotums who dispensed their jobs in favor to their home constituents in return due to their loyalty on the material election date. An aldermanÃ¢â¬â¢s clout purely depended on liability of political structures and schemes to have his vote delivered. In this city, the question of either winning or losing never rose to the politicians but the organizations definitely won the battles through all means because always the court was based on pluralities. (Landesco,1973) During the Election Day, a message was being sent stating that the enemy should be punished and destroyed such that he can never think of politics again in future. The end justified the resulting means in time of insuring a victory decisive in the often grim Darwinistic struggle for life and death. Threat campaigns, brass knuckles, and even murder came to be the only preferred tactics methods especially when the normal ways of using propaganda and persuading voters seemed not to work. The violence associated with Al Capone and the terror campaigns during the election eve in 1923, he waged against the other political bosses of Cicero. Al Capone tried to invade the blue-collar factory in Chicago town when things proved to be too not for him. Capone was the only piker in the town. Intimidation and violence was the ChicagoÃ¢â¬â¢s way out, and its roots historically extended very much in those times as compared to the rollicking era of Big Fellow and the bathtub gin. Chicagoans much involvement was in the political elections results not considering distractions of the professional sports televisions and other diversions of 20th century than today. In every ward, there was organization of social clubs which aimed to boost the areas preferred candidates. In the city, there were pageantry of colorful parades, torch light rallies, bombastic oratory emissions of sets of smoke were all over the meeting halls and also scattered all over the city (Adamic 1931, p.56). All these events were to show important senses ethnic pride hopes neighborhood identity, fears and also prejudices which vested in candidateÃ¢â¬â¢s fortune and enough courage to descend out of the same dominant nationality which was found within the wards. At times a Republican club or the Democratic club engaged in rival organizations which represented some other districts and the ethnic groups in woolly and wild free for alls which were often settled by bats, bricks and also pavement stones. In 1928, Aiello Capone war was still controlled by Unione Siciliana in Chicago. In April, 1928 elections, Capone supporters were heavily backing their Uniuone Siciliana candidate Bernard Barasa. This group had been associated with a number of explosions in connection with his campaigns although he lost the battle to the incumbent with more than 100, 000 votes. Immediately after the primary elections, Capone left for Miami Beach. In late June 1928, other leaders who included Fischetti Charley, Dab Serritella and Jake Guzik visited the boss. Soon they were accompanied by the famous machine gun jack and other killing twins who had been associated with murder of two Chicago killings of police officers. They discussed the fate of Frank Uale, who was the national president of Unione Siciliana in the state of New York. The next visit of Capone to Chicago was to attend the funeral of Lombardo Anthony, who was the Capone; sponsored president in Chicago.Lombardo had been killed by Aiello forces. As Capone was leaving Chicago, he met Lollordo and discovered that he could be threat to him in aspirating the presidential seat. On January, 8, 1929, Lolordo was shot with .38 Caliber guns without any warning (Landesco 1931, p.68). Conclusion. Some few years later, the long awaited reformist aim of shadowy conspirators who were seeking for control of ChicagoÃ¢â¬â¢s violence situation got the public attention in the city when vice entrepreneur and boot legging Al Capone and Torrio John rose and prominence shocking violence. Their main agenda discussed about the earliest depictions of the criminal events which oriented from election activities during the boot legging time. They ignored many illegal businesses from international liquor trading networks t neighborhood soft drinks parlors. It also ignored public demands for booze which focused on competition in violence among the gangs in dominations of the illegal trading especially in urban space. Their illustrations also show the fuzzy and ever shifting turf of major gangsters around 1925 which suggests that no Chicagoan could control some of the gang. Generally these criminal events indicated that the city of Chicago had no well established rules to govern the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s activities. It is also noted that most of the organizations associated with violence were supported and funded by the prominent political aspirantÃ¢â¬â¢s. At the same time, more groups of gangs formed due to the advantage of political crisis. For instance, the robberies, arson, rape among other evil events. All these symbolized governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s failure to provide enough security force to curb the problem. References. Adamic L, (1931), Dynamite: The story of classic violence in America, London. Asbury H, (2002).The Gungs of New York.London. Brumer H, (1969), Symbolic Interactionsm.Berkly. Davis H, (1960).Reinhold Niebuhr on Politics: New York Gosnell H, (1937).Machine Politics: Chicago Model. Chicago. Green P, (1995).The Mayors: The Chicago Political Tradition. Carbondale. Hagan J, (1978).Modern Criminology. New York. Haller M, (1973).Organized Crime in Chicago Part iii of the Illions crime survey 1929.Chicago. Landesco J, (1973), Organized Crime in Chicago: Part iii of the Illions Crime Survey 1929.Chicago. Lasswell H, (1939).World Revolutionary Propaganda: A Chicago Study. New York. McGarry j, (2004).The Northern Ireland Conflict: Consociational Engagements. Oxford. Merriam C, (1929).Chicago: A More Intimate View of Urban Politics.New York. Shapiro H, (1988).White Violence and Black Response: Amherst. Wirth L, (1965).On Cities and social life.Chicago. Woodiwiss M, (2001), Organized Crime and American Power. Toronto.
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Friday, January 3, 2020
The Themes of Deception and Self-Deceit in William Shakespeares Twelfth Night Works Cited Missing The comical play, Twelfth night, which was written by Shakespeare, is a classic example of seventeenth century humour, wit, deception and self-deceit. In the play we see how twin Viola and Sebastian are separated, and they both think that one another is dead; My brother, he is in Elysium (Act I i line 1) but are reunited in disguise, in a land of madness and delirium, called Illyria. This essay will be covering the themes of deception and self-deceit. Self-deceit means when a character is lying to hisÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The audience know this is so she can get close to him. In act two we meet Violas identical twin brother, Sebastian, who thinks Viola is dead, and Malvolio persuses Cesario with Olivias ring. This is when Viola realises that Olivia likes Cesario. The three conspirators play a trick on Malvolio, to make him think that Olivia likes him, which affects his behaviour towards her. All these acts of deception are all deceiving someone or another. First Cesario deceives Malvolio and Olivia in making him think that he is Cesario, and second is when Malvolio is deceived by the three conspirators (Maria, Fabian and Sir Toby). The effect of these deeds are that people think that Viola is a man and, soon Malvolio will approach Olivia dressed differently and Olivia will think that Malvolio is mad. The audience see this as a point that all the main plots start to take form. The audience also think that the deceiving characters are creul and manipulative to toy with other characters emotions and get away with it. I know this letter will make a contemplative idiot of him (Act II v 16-17) Maria says this, and this shows the audience that the characters dont think highly of Malvolio. In act three, the audience see Sebastian and Antonio going to Illyria, and Antonio is giving Sebastian all of his money. LaterShow MoreRelated Comparing the Love of Romeo and Juliet, Twelfth Night and the Bible4838 Words Ã |Ã 20 Pagesenemies. (Matt 5:44) Shakespeares Biblical knowledge is well known and he was certainly familiar with these concepts as he wrote his plays on the subject of love. By looking closely at his works, we can analyze the nature of true love. In Romeo and Juliet, Shakespeare gives an example of true love overcome by tragic fate. His star-crossed lovers are so madly in love with each other that they cannot live without being together. (RJ Prologue, 6) By contrast, in Twelfth Night the characters are soRead More Misperception and Deception in William Shakespeares Twelfth Night2160 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesMisperception and Deception in Twelfth NightÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Twelfth Night is likely one of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s most entertaining and complete comedy. This romance explores a generous wealth of themes and issues. The most recurrent theme is the relationship between misperception and deception. As a result of their environment and immediate circumstances, men are forced into misperceptions. Paradoxically, they are completely trapped by these illusions. Between the bad fortune they encounter andRead MoreHow Shakespeare Explores the Theme of Deception and Self-Deception in Twelfth Night2536 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesHow Shakespeare Explores the Theme of Deception and Self-Deception in Twelfth Night Deception is the use of deceit that deceives everyone around you including yourself. It is the fact or state of being deceived. It can be a ruse or a trick in disguise, which deludes, giving a sense of indirection. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a misleading falsehood. One can deceive by running away from even their true self either physically or mentally. Self-deception on the other hand is the act of deluding oneselfRead MoreTwelfth Night- Literature Cape Unit !7125 Words Ã |Ã 29 PagesTwelfth Night Criticism William Shakespeare and The Twelfth Night Known for his tragedies, comedies, sonnets and love stories, William Shakespeare is argued to be one of the best writers of his time. Throughout his plays, including The Twelfth Night, he uses disguise and deceit to fool the other characters to benefit another. Shakespeare was born in April of 1564 in the town Stratford-upon-Avon. Although the exact date of his birth is not known, historians traditionally celebrate it on the 23rd
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