Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) in Women An Annotated Bibliography Dissociative Identity Disorder is also known as Ã¢â¬Å"Multiple Personality DisorderÃ¢â¬ . This can be defined as an effect of severe trauma during early childhood, usually extreme, repetitive physical, sexual or emotional abuse. I chose this topic because I had to do a research paper about it in my Psychology class, so I just used the research I did to do this paper.This was my first choice of a topic because itÃ¢â¬â¢s a psychological disorder that I have been fascinated with, since coming to America. Although there were times that I had to look for a topic that was much broader, such as, Ã¢â¬Å"disorders and womenÃ¢â¬ in general in order to find anything reliable about my topic. By broadening my research to include the Ã¢â¬Å"disorders that relate to men and womenÃ¢â¬ , I was able to write a paper with a much more effective argument. I initially started to do research using the Internet and looking for scholastic journals.While this provided plenty of sources it was often difficult to determine if the information was reliable and half of the results were not relevant to my topic, like there were many times that I found myself looking through thousands of search results. Many of which were so irrelevant to my topic, like bulimia and anorexia, which are disorders but these are eating disorders, not psychological disorders. The most effective research method I found was going into EBSCOHOST and using the Academic Search Premier and Psychology databases, while trying a variety of search phrases.This method helped me find many useful journals with information that I could use directly, or, by going to the reference section of the journal, would lead me to other sources. I used IUCAT to find the reference books and the encyclopedias for my paper, the reference books were much more useful than I expected, proving that women suffer from DID more than men. I assumed that all encyclopedias were filled with broad, general definitions, but I found several that had very specific information on my topic and also listed sources that I could use for further research.I found several of the new research methods introduced during this course to be extremely helpful. I was surprised by how much of a difference changing a phrase or using Boolean Operators made at the beginning of a search. I hated the nesting search method, because it complicated everything and gave me millions of results, most of which were very irrelevant. I started out on the internet using the search phrase, Ã¢â¬Å"Dissociative Identity Disorder and womenÃ¢â¬ which gave me plenty of results, but when I put limiters like Peer Reviewed Journals and Scholarly articles, I got fewer, more relevant articles.When I replaced Ã¢â¬Å"andÃ¢â¬ with Ã¢â¬Å"orÃ¢â¬ I got much different articles. By isolating or deleting certain words in a search phrase I would get a completely new set of sources, and I was comple tely surprised at how little I knew about doing research in the library. The library turned out to be much more useful to me than the Internet since I did not have to spend nearly as much time verifying the reliability of a source or checking to see if the source was relevant.I learnt that to judge the relevance of anything- a journal article, website, a book, we do so with the following criteria: The purpose of the article, Type of Journal, Coverage, Date of Article, Authority, Usefulness, Bias (of the publisher) and Organization and Content, and this was indeed the most important thing I learnt in this class. MLA Format Movies The Three Faces of Eve. Dir. Nunnally Johnson. Perf. Joanne Woodward, David Wayne and Lee J. Cobb. Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation, 1957. DVD.I watched this movie in high school; it was about Eve White, who had 2 other personalities living in her. Whenever she is faced with different situations like fear, anger, happiness, sadness, a different person ality would take over her actions. She was Eve White, a quiet, mousy, unassuming wife and mother who keeps suffering from headaches and occasional black outs. Eventually she is sent to see psychiatrist Dr. Luther, and, while under hypnosis, a whole new personality emerges: the racy, wild, fun-loving Eve Black. Under continued therapy, yet a third personality appears, the relatively stable Jane.This film, based on the true-life case of a multiple personality, chronicles Dr. Luther's attempts to reconcile the three faces of Eve. The movie really captures the frustration of a person with Dissociative Identity Disorder, because after each personality takes over, Eve White does not remember anything the other personalities said or did, so in the movie the therapist is trying to combine all 3 personalities back into 1 personality, so it was a very good visual representation of a woman with DID. Books Schreiber, Flora Rheta. Sybil. Chicago: Regnery, 1973. Print. I actually read this book a nd own it.This book is a fictional story about Sybil Dorsett, a pseudonym for a real woman named Shirley Ardell Mason, who was originally in treatment for social anxiety and memory loss, but whom during the course of treatment, manifests 16 other personalities. Throughout the book, her psychoanalyst, Cornelia Wilbur, encourages SybilÃ¢â¬â¢s various selves to communicate and reveal information about her life. It describes Sybil's selves gradually becoming co-conscious, able to communicate and share responsibilities, and having musical compositions and art published under their various names.Wilbur attempts to integrate Sybil's various selves, first convincing them via hypnosis that they are all the same age, then encouraging them to merge. I included this in my research because at the book's end, a new, optimistic self-called Ã¢â¬Å"The BlondeÃ¢â¬ emerges, facilitating Sybil's final integration into a single, whole individual with full knowledge of her past and present life, whi ch is the goal of every person with DID. Comer, Ronald J. Abnormal Psychology. 7th ed. New York: Worth, 2010. Print. I found this book through the IUCAT online library catalog using the search terms Ã¢â¬Å"Dissociative Identity Disorder and womenÃ¢â¬ .This is a book about different types of abnormal disorders. It offers a fresh, comprehensive, and exciting presentation of the field, with objective, balanced coverage of a wide range of theories, studies, disorders, and treatments and all major models. According to student reviews, Ã¢â¬Å"There has never been a text for the course so well-attuned to both the field of abnormal psychology and the wide range of students exploring itÃ¢â¬ . I liked this text because it presented the information in an unbiased manner.It used a lot of case studies and current events to support the various psychological theories. Hyman, Jane Wegscheider. I Am More than One: How Women with Dissociative Identity Disorder Have Found Success in Life and Work. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2007. Print. I read this book in high school and also own it. In the book, I Am More Than One, Jane Hyman takes on and succeeds at a difficult task, one which few authors manage to accomplish: communicating to her readers the deep respect with which she holds the women she interviews, even though their experiences are so foreign to her.It is clear from the beginning that Jane wants us to understand these women's experiences from their own perspectives, without denying the clinical descriptions of their illness. The stories in this book are riveting; the women are sharply and almost affectionately drawn, but as much as possible Jane Ã¢â¬Å"gets out of the wayÃ¢â¬ of her subjects. Most chapters focus on a theme such as work, family, or relationships, but all in all, my favorite part of the book is that the author treats all her subjects with the same respect and a sincere desire to understand a life lived with DID and pass that understanding on to the reader .Reference book First, Michael, M. D. , ed. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV-TR. Vol. 4 Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2000. Print. I found this source by using the IUCAT online library catalog and it was available in the reference section of the IUSB library. This book covers all mental health disorders for both children and adults. It also lists known causes of these disorders, statistics in terms of gender, age of onset, and prognosis as well as some research concerning the optimal treatment approaches.In here, I discovered that, Ã¢â¬Å"Dissociative Identity Disorder is diagnosed 3 to 9 times more frequently in adult females than in adult males. Also, that females tend to have more identities than do males averaging 15 or more, whereas males average approximately 8 identitiesÃ¢â¬ , which did my topic a lot of justice. I liked this source a lot because some of the websites I had visited; had redirected me to this book as additional reference, and it was of great help. Government Publication United States. United States Courts. Court of Appeals. 6-3545 Ã¢â¬â United States v. Carol L. Gillmore. N. p. : n. p. , n. d. GPOaccess. Web. 8 Aug. 2012. . I found this publication by doing a search on GPOAccess. It is a court case about a woman who had DID, Carol Gillmore, who alleged at trial that her actions toward George Stately were a result of her DID causing her to experience a Ã¢â¬Å"red-out,Ã¢â¬ meaning that she entered into a dissociative state in which she suffered Ã¢â¬Å"a disruption . . . of consciousness, memory, identity and perception of [her] environment. She killed someone while in a state of amnesia with DID, so she is appealing her sentence because she claims she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t remember killing George. I included this article because it is a life example of how the government handles people with DID. Journal articles Eric Eich, Dawn Macaulay, Richard J. Loewenstein and Patrice H. Dihle. Ã¢â¬Å"Me mory, Amnesia, and Dissociative Identity DisorderÃ¢â¬ . Psychological Science 8. 6 (1997): 417-422. EBSCOhost. Web. 23 July 2012. I found this article during a search in EBSCOhost.I found this article particularly interesting, because it explained a very common symptom of DID. It explained that virtually all patients with dissociative identity (or multiple personality) disorder manifest interpersonality amnesia, a situation where events experienced by a particular personality state or identity are retrievable or can be remembered by that same identity but not by a different one. That though it is considered as a hallmark of dissociative identity disorder (DID), inter-personality amnesia has to date being payed little to no attention.I found this article interesting because I remember how Eve from the movie got frustrated with herself when she could not remember things that she herself had just done or said. Ennis, Mark William, and Pamela Pater-Ennis. Ã¢â¬Å"Sanctuary Healing: One Congregation's Experience with Dissociative Identity Disorder. Ã¢â¬ Journal of Religion & Abuse 7. 4 (2006): 19-39. EBSCOhost. Web. 23 July 2012. I found this article in EBSCOhost. This article looked at different religions and how they view people with DID. Specifically the Christian and how they did a sanctuary healing to try to heal a woman with DID.The other personalities are seen as demons that have to be cast out of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s body. I found it as an interesting article, it was a very different view about DID, itÃ¢â¬â¢s good to be included in a research paper. Baker, Karen. Ã¢â¬Å"From Ã¢â¬Å"It's Not MeÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"It Was Me, After AllÃ¢â¬ : A Case Presentation of a Patient Diagnosed with Dissociative Identity Disorder. Ã¢â¬ Psychoanalytic Social Work 17. 2 (2010): 79-98. EBSCOhost. Web. 27 July 2012. I found this article in EBSCOhost. It sheds light on the fact that, in cases of extreme childhood trauma associated with abuse and neglect, one's sense of self is seriously compromised.Attachment patterns, symptoms, defensive operations, and character formation will differ depending upon the level of interference and impingement. That when repeated trauma occurs in early childhood, the dissociative response may become the first line of defense for the person to rely upon. This paper addresses the case of a woman diagnosed with DID. It describes the restoration of a unified sense of self from the eight parts of a dissociated and fragmented self in the course of therapy. The clinical case material presented is that of the child part of her, known as Lucy. Her treatment resulted in the integration of the Ã¢â¬Ëit's not me! self to the patient's knowledge that Ã¢â¬Ëit was me, after all. I like this article because it focuses on the child identity of an adult woman and what the child identity in the midst of adults has to go through, it was very interesting. Laddis A, Dell P. Dissociation and Psychosis in Dissociative Identity Disorder and Schizophrenia. Journal Of Trauma ; Dissociation July 2012; 13(4):397-413. Academic Search Premier. Web. July 17, 2012. I found this article using the Academic Search Premier in EBSCOhost. This is a case survey of people with DID versus those with schizophrenia.Dissociative symptoms, first-rank symptoms of schizophrenia, and delusions were assessed in 40 schizophrenia patients and 40 dissociative identity disorder (DID) patients with the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID). DID patients obtained significantly (a) higher dissociation scores; (b) higher passive-influence scores (first-rank symptoms); and (c) higher scores on scales that measure child voices, angry voices, persecutory voices, voices arguing, and voices commenting. Schizophrenia patients obtained significantly higher delusion scores than DID patients. It was an interesting article of how other disorders relate to DID.Websites Johnson, Kimball. Ã¢â¬Å"Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality D isorder): Signs, Symptoms, Treatment. Ã¢â¬ WebMD. WebMD, 26 May 2012. Web. 10 Aug. 2012. ;http://www. webmd. com/mental-health/dissociative-identity-disorder-multiple-personality-disorder;. I found this website while doing a search on Google. I choose to include this article in my bibliography because WebMD has always had a very reliable name. The information they provide is unbiased and is simply there to inform and help the reader. The article includes everything you need to know about DID Ã¢â¬â from the symptoms, causes, and possible treatments. Grohol, John. Dissociative Identity Disorder Symptoms. Ã¢â¬ PsychCentral, 9 July 2012. Web. 9 Aug. 2012. . I found this website while searching using Google. I included this website because the article goes into depth about the several different treatments of DID. These include Psychotherapy, Medications and Self Help. How effective each treatment type is, and it was determined that psychotherapy is the most effective way of trea tment that gives way to Ã¢â¬Å"integrationÃ¢â¬ of the personalities. There are some things included in this website that were not included on the WebMD website and vice versa.
Posted by J at 6:34 PM
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
The information provided in the scenario was actually very detailed; however it did not cover everything. There are a few things I would like to know about the suspect. One of the things discussed were his mental issues he has been suffering for quite some time. What the scenario does not specify is what is determined to be the cause of his illness. The scenario also mentions that he had been taking anti psychosis medicines however it does not say for how long or what kind. As a psychologist it would be crucial for me to find this information out. The reason for this would be that if a patient is taking anti psychosis medicine for a period of time and abruptly stops taking them it could cause the patient to actually go into a psychotic state of mind. The scenario states that the patient was not taking the medicine at the time of the murder. As a psychologist I would want to find out how long he was taking them prior to the murder and when did he stop taking the medicine before the murders occurred. As this persons psychologist in order to completely give them a full review and determine with the best of judgment how competent this person is I would also need to obtain all of the patients mental health records, what type of treatment has been given in the past, rather it was effective or ineffective, what the patients state of mind was at the time of the hospitalization, thus being pre and post functioning of the patient. The most important thing of all when assessing competency in this particular type of case is rather or not the patient understands the full consequences of their actions. In order for a person to be legally declared incompetent to stand trial they must be evaluated and found to not understand the difference between right from wrong. It is morally and legally unethical to prosecute someone who does not understand what they are being prosecuted for. Some people who I would want to contact for collateral information on the patient would be those who have had the closest contact with him. First I would start off with the medical professionals that have had contact with him in the past such as his previous psychologists and doctors. These people would be the best when obtaining the most professional and unbiased opinions about his mental health issues. Next I would interview the patients friends and get their personal opinions on what type of behavior they have experienced with the patient. The true character of the patient would be most accurately revealed here because they are friends not nessicarily people who have negatively affected him. If anything these would be the people who have most likely kept him in control of his feelings because they would be the ones who are his support network. Friends can be someone he could talk to without personal judgment and ridicule. Family members of course would also be crucial in getting information about the patient because they are the ones who interact with him on a daily basis. In the scenario it says that he has been especially violent towards family members for example he had violently attacked his sister in an attempt to seriously hurt or otherwise kill her. Finally I might want to contact previous employers and teachers. These people would be able to give their testimony about his character on a professional level. Past school teachers may be able to shed some light on his social status when it comes to interaction with his peers. For example I would find out things like was he a loner, was he social or anti-social, was he quiet or was he very out spoken, and did he ever show any type of aggressive behavior towards other students or teachers. He may have been teased in school so I would want to find out if that situation has occurred. Those who are ridiculed by their peers will tend to act out in adverse ways. It is very hard to determine rather or not the patient is competent to stand trial or not. There is just too much information missing. I would need to conduct a better evaluation of the patient myself instead of going by the information obtained in the scenario report. For instance I would have to evaluate the patient by reviewing how his mental state is before taking the anti-psychosis medicine; and then conduct a study of how his behavior is when he is taking the anti-psychotics. Then I would have to determine if any of his past behaviors are possibly linked to not taking the medicine or not. In the scenario it says that he was taking anti-psychosis medicine for a period of time however he was not taking them at the time of the murder. I would want to find out what type of medicine he was on, how it was working for him, and when he stopped. If he just abruptly stopped taking the medicine it could have caused his lucid state of mind and caused the actions that had occurred. However if he was on anti-psychotic medicine and still believed stuff like the delusions he was experiencing pertaining to the mayor being part of the CIA and his sister needing to be destroyed then it is highly unlikely that he is even remotely competent to stand trial. In order to assess his competency I would need to ask a series of questions. I would want to ask things like : Can you explain to me the charges that are being pressed against you? Can you tell me some of the consequences that could occur if you are convicted? What happened to your parents that has brought you to this situation? What could some of the verdicts be? What are some of the consequences of those verdicts? Basically just to get an understanding of rather or not the patient thoroughly understands the charges that are brought against them and some of the consequences of those charges. I would also want to determine if the patient understands the entire trial process and the role that each person plays within the trial. If I was called to testify on behalf of my professional opinion of the risk of future violence of the victim I would. However I would make it clear that when the patient is taking his anti-psychosis medicine his symptoms are mild and for the most part controlled. I would also let the judge and jury know that he does suffer from his schizophrenia and that while he may be taking anti-psychosis medicine it is no guarantee that he will not have a future hallucination or outburst that could cause a violent reaction. After all he does suffer from an incurable disease and all he can do is manage it. I could however provide information on the levels of violence that has occurred throughout his treatment starting from beginning to end and see if the violence has increased or lessened over the course of treatment. This type of thorough presentation would help the judge and jury to better understand and determine the risk that the patient may or may not cause to society. I would also provide my professional opinion on the competency level of the patient and rather or not he is fully competent to stand trial for his accused actions.
Posted by J at 10:05 PM
Moldova is a land locked country that lies between Ukraine and Romania.Ã It gained independence in 1991 after an aborted coup against Russia.Ã It is ranked as the most poor country in Europe, attributable to the economic crisis that faced Russia in 1998.Ã This is because Moldova's foreign trade heavily relied on Russia and the crisis naturally had adverse effects on its economy.Ã The current president, Vladimir Voronin, has made attempts to bring the country closer to Russia in a bid to resuscitate the economy.Economic development is the effort to increase wealth of a country through empowering the citizens (Leornard, 2006).Ã It goes beyond economic growth and focuses on social and political sectors of the society.Ã This includes uplifting the standards of living of the people as well as enhancing democracy and freedom of the people.Ã Measures include economic growth, literacy rates, poverty rates, life expectancy among others.Moldova is able to attain the status of highly developed countries, in the next fifty years due to the changes that the current government is implementing, that facilitate reaching this level.Economic aspectFor development to be achieved, there has to be a systematic effort to increase the economic growth.Ã Moldova does not have major mineral resources and consequently relies on agriculture, due to the favorable climate.Ã It relies on Russia for nearly half of the exports and major import partners include Russia, Romania, Belarus and Ukraine.Ã Major imports are fuel, electricity, chemicals, textiles and machinery while exports are foodstuffs, textiles and tobacco.Ã It experiences unfavorable balance of trade and in 2007, it was recorded at $2.3 billion.Ã Moldova has high external debt that was estimated at $900 million in 2000, most of which came from the World Bank and the IMF.The GDP declined over the years due to the effect from Russia but is now slowly coming around.Ã Moldova's strategy to improv e the economy was to free prices and interest rates, land privatization and the removal of export restrictions.Ã Economic progress is gradually being achieved since indicators like the GDP are rising.Ã Inflation is reducing and the economy is growing due to the government's expenditure framework that stresses fiscal discipline as well as efficient resource use.Social aspect.Ten years ago, 75% of the population in Moldova was below the poverty line (Berglund, 2004).Ã Other social problems include human trafficking and influx of drugs such as opium, since Moldova is a route for drugs destined for Europe and US.Ã This has an adverse effect on the health of the people. Ã The government is slowly addressing these issues, for example by empowering the population through investment geared towards economic growth.Ã This is being done by reducing hurdles to business entry, by for example, reducing number of licenses required for trade.Ã This results in increase of disposa ble income to households.Ã The government is also constructing infrastructure like roads, schools and hospitals to improve the standards of living of the people.Political aspectMoldovan political parties lack internal democracy and accountability.Ã Opposition parties do not take part in formulation of policies due to parliament's attitude of ignoring alternative opinions.Ã In 2005, Freedom House gave Moldova a score of 5.75, in terms of democracy, which is a poor show.Ã Political parties do not also hold dialog with civil societies.Ã The government is slowly increasing the democratic space.Ã It has also dedicated time to solve the Transnistrian conflict which will increase political development.ChallengesPrivatization of state owned corporations is marred by corruption. There is political and economic uncertainty and ineffective law enforcement.Ã Over reliance of Russia in trade is also a challenge.Ã Ban on Moldovan wine and agricultural products by Russia in 2006 adversely affected its revenue, since wine accounted for a third of its exports, of which 80% went to Russia (Leornard, 2006).Ã In 2007, Moldova faced drought that led to losses in the agricultural sector amounting to over $100 million.Ã There is financial challenge due to external debt and uncertainty towards future assistance.Ã Finally, there is a challenge of involving poor people in activities of Non-Governmental Organizations.RecommendationsMoldova should reduce reliance on Russia for trade since in the past, any adverse policy changes by Russia have greatly affected Moldovan economy.Ã It should also reduce the reliance on agriculture and diversify in other sectors of the economy, since climate change tends to greatly affect the economy.Ã Support for medium and small size enterprises would facilitate increase the employment opportunities in the country.Ã There should be motivation for development for example rewards, to encourage innovation.Ã Use of r enewable energy sources like wind would reduce reliance on electricity.Moldova shouldÃ ensure that the civil society participates in the formation of policies at all levels so as to integrate the views of the citizens.Ã It should put in place reforms that strengthen civil control over the military.Ã It should design legal frameworks that define rights and tasks of parliamentary, civilian and public control mechanisms.ConclusionMoldova is on track in achieving development in the next few decades.Ã All it has to do is reduce reliance on Russia and look for alternative markets.Ã It should also strengthen democracy and improve the standards of living of the people.Ã A stable political environment coupled with infrastructure to attract investments, efficient use of the available resources as well as having effective monetary and fiscal policies should enable Moldova achieve development before the next fifty hours are over. References Leonard, T. M. (2006), Encyclopedia of the developing world. Washington: Routledge. Berglund, S. (2004), The handbook of political change in eastern Europe. New York: Edward
Posted by J at 1:37 AM
Monday, July 29, 2019
Plagiarism - Essay Example Plagiarism is considered an academic crime in academic settings. There is no school, college, or university anywhere in the world that does not discourage the act of plagiarism. The reason is that plagiarism is an academic crime that violates the rules and ethics of creative writing. Such detection tools are available that can easily detect whether a student has copied something from somewhere or not. As Sumerset states, Ã¢â¬Å"with plenty of tools that can spot copied, repurposed or coopted text, attempting to plagiarize other people's material can be an exercise in nothing but getting caught red-handedÃ¢â¬ . Some colleges and universities even expel such students who commit the act of plagiarism. Such strict standards discourage students from doing any kind of plagiarism in their personal essays and reports. Let us now discuss the ways one may plagiarize in his/her papers, reports, and other documents. How One May Plagiarize Plagiarism is basically of three to four types. Sometim es, writers do not even know that they are plagiarizing or not. However, when they get the results, they get to know the fact that they have plagiarized unknowingly. The best way to detect the occurrence of any sort of plagiarism is to use some plagiarism detection software that can check whole document for plagiarism. One of the main ways a person can plagiarize is by forgetting to put direct quotations within inverted commas. Use of inverted commas for direct quotations or sentences from web and non-print sources is a basic rule regarding plagiarism. Some people forget this rule and commit plagiarism. For example, if a person copies a sentence from somewhere and pastes it in his/her own paper without putting the sentence within inverted commas and mentioning the name of the author and the page number at the end of the sentence and in the references page, it will be plagiarism. Another way through which a person can plagiarize is by changing the words of the copied sentence thinkin g that changed wording does not cause plagiarism. It is true but for short sentences. Sometimes people try to write whole paragraphs using their own words and in the same order of sentences. However, they do not mention the source of the paragraph at the end of the paragraph. This is called paragraph paraphrasing and is plagiarism if not cited properly. Sometimes people just change the order of the words of the copied sentences. They are not aware of the fact that changing the order of the words does not change the original wording of the sentence. This is called Mosaic plagiarism, which occurs due to lack of knowledge of referencing rules (Rajeev). For example, if a copied sentence is Ã¢â¬ËA mouse was under the tableÃ¢â¬â¢. Now, if a person changes it to Ã¢â¬ËUnder the table was a mouseÃ¢â¬â¢, it will be mosaic plagiarism. Ways to Avoid Plagiarism Plagiarism is an act of cheating which not only harms a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s creative writing ability but also affects the reputatio n of the institute if the paper of the student is caught for plagiarism at any platform. One can take ideas of others for writing a report or any other document but he/she should always mention the original source of that information or ideas in order to make the use of those ideas legal. Moreover, it is not sufficient to mention the source of the information only within the text of the paper. Failing to include complete reference/source in the references page also results in plagiarism. Some
Posted by J at 5:08 AM
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Impact of big data on data management functions - Essay Example Distinguishing characteristics of Big Data are its capabilities of circumnavigating data utilization and limitation issues. It deploys highly cohesive methods for data nomenclature and architecture. It also deploys dedicated and powerful processors just for data storage and retrieval functions. While normal range of handling data sets varies from megabytes to gigabytes, Big Data can handle data sets varying in the range of terabytes and pentabytes (Magoulas and Lorica 2009). However, functioning of Big Data at such an enormous scale of database management may have some unwanted impact. It often becomes highly difficult to detect privacy violations or flaws in data capturing methods while operating Big Data (Snijders, Matzat, and Reips 2012). The general paradigm of data management deals with traditionally manageable sizes of mostly similar datasets. For example, DAMAÃ¢â¬â¢s Data Management Body of Knowledge or DAMA-DMBOK framework serves as a popular functional paradigm for general data management. There are 10 primary functions in DAMA-DMBOK. According to the DAMA-DMBOK Guide (2010), these 10 functions are: Data Governance serves as the core function, which must be accomplished with the help of the other functions. The framework also explicitly defines all the stakeholders involved in database management and related utilities. (Earley 2011) Big Data has certain positive impacts on a standard database management framework like DAMA-DMBOK. Firstly, it helps in modifying the framework suitably for handling larger datasets. Secondly, it helps in developing a stakeholder-independent database management framework. Thirdly, it helps in generating and storing enormous amounts of data for both storage and processing. (Magoulas and Lorica 2009) However, Big Data is likely to have a negative impact on certain DAMA-DMBOK functions such as Data Security Management and Data Quality Management. The
Posted by J at 8:42 AM
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Apostle Paul and the Law - Research Paper Example What does seem clear is that the traditions of Mosaic Law have been placed outside of Christian life is distinguished from its Judaic heritage by replacing ritualistic worship to that of faith based worship. The place of the Law within Christian life, however, seems to have much less definition to modern readers. The following paper will first discuss the ways in which the life of Christ exemplified an Ã¢â¬ËothernessÃ¢â¬â¢ that was difficult for new Christians to grasp without the condition of Mosaic Law to create ritual and order. The discussion will then focus on the Epistle to the Galatians and then the Epistle to the Romans in order to define what Paul said in relationship to law for the Church. Finally, an examination of the issue will bring to light how the letters written by Paul can be related to the Gospel revelations of the nature of Christ and his teachings to his followers. Through a look at faith based Salvation and the need for order through Law, the writings of Pau l can be used to help uncover Mosaic Law traditions in relationship to the new responsibilities and freedoms of the followers of Christ. Social Differentiation, Ã¢â¬ËOthernessÃ¢â¬â¢ and the Discussion of Law Defining individuals through social structures that place them into groups has been a long remembered method of defining the population across the world Ã¢â¬ËOthernessÃ¢â¬â¢ was a problem in that the openness with which Christ taught was incongruent with the way in which people saw one another. Christ gave examples in order to show that he embraced all people for their differences, their faults, and even for their sins. When pressed to define who was a neighbor He made a Samaritan into the hero of the story at a time when Samaritans were looked down upon with contempt. After Jesus had left the world, however, the social differentiations that existed began to emerge as an issue where practices and traditions infiltrated the nature of the message that Paul gave in how to w orship. Paul found that he had to dampen the belief in old ways so that the new could thrive in a world in which ritual was a strong part of life. Ritual still defines how people find structure in their life. Through the acts of ritual, order is established. It is far easier to do something than to simply believe in something. Paul saw that the need for ritual was clouding the message that he had brought to followers, the belief that in doing certain acts that followed Mosaic Law salvation could be gained. People rather naturally fall to doing to express what they feel rather than feeling what is needed to create faith. Faith is a difficult concept even in its simplicity. Faith means to believe, but there is a great deal of baggage between knowing and believing which can get in the way. People tend to fall to doing rather than devoting their time to belief as faith has such a deep emotional context that it can be hard to maintain. Culture and the Law tend to be an issue. As people t ake comfort in the rituals that build the familiar, the show of enacting the Law was outside of the practices of worship that Paul had given to followers. It was not the rituals themselves that were a problem but that he was afraid that they were using ritual in place of belief. In reading the work of Thompson
Posted by J at 12:15 PM
Friday, July 26, 2019
LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR-MICROSOFT - Essay Example ms Solutions Tod Nielsen, and Chief Technology Officer Nathan Myhrvold (Rosoff, Matt, Microsoft addresses employee morale, turnover, Direction on Microsoft, January 15, 2000). In 2005, cover story for Businessweek was: Ã¢â¬Å"Troubling Exits At Microsoft,Ã¢â¬ with a subtitle which captures the businessworldÃ¢â¬â¢s alarmed view of the events at Microsoft: Ã¢â¬Å"Once the dream workplace of techÃ¢â¬â¢s highest achievers, it is suffering key defections to Google and elsewhere. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s behind the losses?Ã¢â¬ (Businessweek, 26 September 2005). The same article writes about the bolting out of Microsoft by one of the top technical persons, Kai-Fu Lee, to join the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s rival Google Inc., a move, which, according to Lee, rooted from what he saw as repeated missteps by the company, and even called the company incompetent, exactly opposite his picture of Google, which was encouraging bottoms-up innovation rather than top-down. Statistically, the situation is likewise alarming. Rosoff, in the same article, cites MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s Chief Operating Officer Robert Herbold who presented alarming statistics on employee attrition at the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s last three Financial Analyst meetings, to wit: Since Fiscal Year (FY) 1995, attrition at Microsoft was between 7% and 8% ; and in FY 2000, it hit 9.6%, the first time it crested the 9% threshold since FY 1994. Although MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s is lower than the industry average attrition rate, it is going against the trend where the rest of the IT industryÃ¢â¬â¢s attrition significantly decrease. Rosoff also mentions that the Saratoga Institute research reveal that the median rate of voluntary employee separation in the IT industry dropped from 14.7% in 1997-1998, to 11.4% in 2000. Likewise, Hewitt Associates, a human resource consulting firm, pointed that attrition among IT professionals with highly marketable skills dropped from 16% in 1999 to 12% in 2000. As an Organizational Development Consultant, I have been tasked to assess the organization to find out the
Posted by J at 3:49 PM
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Business - Essay Example The decision of the body will be rested in the hands of the owner and the government or the legislative body of the state. However, many companies fail to follow interests of the last two components of the corporate law which are the citizens and the nation as a whole, its integrity, environment and culture. The trend of globalization has further intensified the competition in the business world, where each company tries to overpower other by whatever means available. Thus, in this race for power and money, it is the local people who become the victim of lies, cruelty and cunningness of companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ money oriented intentions and plans (McFarland, 2004). This paper is an attempt to illustrate the real essence of Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR) and how and which companies have violated it for their self interests. For the paper argument, the Canadian documentary film Ã¢â¬Å"The CorporationÃ¢â¬ by Joel Bakan is made the prime source (Bakan, 2012). Example of Companies 1. Johnson & Johnson J&J is a renowned brand of cosmetics, shampoo and skin lotions. The company is one of the trend setters in the cosmetics world hiding which hides the danger behind their Ã¢â¬Å"good for skinÃ¢â¬ products due to the brand reputation (CBS NEWS, 2012). The products of the J&J Company have been found to contain a diluted amount of Carcinogen Formaldehyde in their baby shampoos. In their effort to create a brand new image of a baby shampoo, they came up with an idea of Ã¢â¬Å"No More TearsÃ¢â¬ to attract their customers. From a customer point, it can be regarded as a great innovation in baby shampoo, but on the cost of healthcare issues (Mercola, 2011). Carcinogen Formaldehyde is one of the materials that can risk to Cancer in the later stages of life. This chemical is also present in their adult products and raises the question of whether their products are actually made for the benefit of people or just for their own benefits (NCI, 2011). However, after been fo und guilty by the Health and Environment Group, the company announced to remove those materials from its products by 2015. These factors leaves the questions that if products of the most famous company which are launched after great research are not safe, can the other products be trusted? (CBS NEWS, 2012) 2. Hershey Hershey is the largest chocolate producing company with worldwide recognition and consumers. It is evident that sales of the company is incomparable to sales of an average company, but still the greed for money cannot be ever satisfied (Hsu, 2012). Hershey Company has been recently indicted by utilizing child labor of Africa, for their cocoa harvesting and refining. The corporate government laws and those of International Labor Organization clearly states that child labor is an act of injustice and should be practiced anywhere in the world (Huff Post Business, 2012). Practices of child labor in the underdeveloped regions show their poverty and strive to earn their livel ihood. However, if the same practice is supported by giant business personnel and organizations like Hershey then it is a clear sign of immorality and easy measure to get low cost labor (Hsu, 2012). 3. KFC KFC is another big name when talking of corporate giants. It is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading fast food chain with its specialty in fried chickens. It is suspicious that how they fulfill the growing demand of chicken food items throughout the world, with the limited number of farming
Posted by J at 7:24 PM
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
ENG 1 (should parents be responsible for their children's actions) - Research Paper Example It is the age at which a person is required to take full responsibility of his/her actions (Uniacke 57). Before attaining the maturity age, the behavior of a person is mainly attributed to the parenting style. It is more often assumed that the parent has a great influence on the actions of children since children often do what they have seen others do, and the parent is supposed to be in charge of helping the child to understand good and bad actions. In some instances, the child may act in a unique way that he has never seen anyone else do. Parents are in charge of ensuring that the children learn how to relate with other people. They are expected to teach the children to be respectful to other people as well as their property. This creates a general perception that guides the child in regard to acceptable behavior until he/she attains maturity age. This paper is a critique of whether parents should be responsible for their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s actions. The behavior of children is largely determined from their moral intelligence. This is the intelligence acquired as the children grow up while observing the behavior of others in the society (Coles 37). Parents are the closest members of the society to the children especially during early childhood when the child develops cognitive capabilities. They need to ensure that the children learn good behavior before they begin interacting with others in school as well as in other social settings. Moral behavior is learned throughout life, but the early stages of development are critical. Parents are required to act as the role models of their children. Kurcinka observes that children tend to learn from the actions of adults (56). If the children witness the parents engaging in unethical behavior such as lying to other people, it is unlikely that they will be convinced that lying is bad. This also applies to other actions such as violent behavior and the use of
Posted by J at 11:01 PM
Sociology of Law and Punishment - Essay Example Norbert Elias suggests that civilisation transform human habitus so that violence in all forms is gradually subjected to greater and more sophisticated forms of management and control. 'Decivilisation' according to him, encompasses processes which produce an increase in violence and a breakdown in the stability and consistency of social relations. What remains unexplored is the extent to which attempts to bring about civilisation, have revolved around essentially violent policies and practices (Robert van Krieken, Abstract, The British Journal of Sociology, Volume 50 Issue 2). Nils Christie, in Crime Control as Industry, suggests that the spiralling prison populations, particularly in the United States, represent a move towards gulags western style, in much the same way that Zygmunt Bauman saw modernity itself as creating the possibility for the Holocaust. For Christie the current 'gulagisation' of the West is not an aberration of modern society, but something that occurs naturally within it. Pratt's book suggests that man may be moving into an area of penal control that takes one beyond the gulag. The gulag it says may not be a sufficient modality of punishment to absorb the punitive sentiments of modern societies. What we find is the supplementation of modern penal sanctions by new forms of legal and extra legal punishments. For Christie, there is hope, that at some point, good sense of the ordinary people will prevail and counter the trends that the forces of modernity made possible. It is argued that there is no goodness to human values and public sen timent: unleashing them may only add to the spiral of penal control (Beyond gulags western style A reconsideration of Nils Christie's crime control as industry, Abstract, Pratt. J). 2.0 Introspection Elias offers a particular paradigm for sociological thought which opposes both the structural-functionalist and methodological-individualist tendencies in sociology. The concept that he developed hoped to severe and expose many of the central dilemmas in sociology, especially the opponents of action and structure, individualism and society. Elias' 'Civilising Process' is contentious, and overlooked with suspicion. Elias deviates from the more fashionable trends in sociology to dig deep into retrospection and seek the unknown. His writing has been a source of ideas and has appealed the senses of those who crave for the unknown. Commentators have veered between two theological pointers; an uncompromising acceptance or ungenerous rejection. His work frequently is a contradiction between supposedly admiring 'followers' and critics. To appreciate Elias, one needs to steer a path between the lines. His handling of human issues; emotions, attitudes towards the body, sexuality, socialisation, and so on, reflected a balanced and systematic approach. His analysis of the human mind is of significant relevance in the context of his larger-scale processes in State formation, urbanisation and
Posted by J at 2:39 AM
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Synthetic Rubber - Lab Report Example During polymerization the double bonds of the isoprene monomers give way to single bonds which will lead to further increase in length of product chain. Butyl rubber-also known as polyisobutylene (C4H8)-is a synthetic rubber and is produced by polymerization of about 98% of isobutylene with about 2% of isoprene (Wikipedia, 2006) using BF3, H2O, CH2CL2 as reaction activators under -78C temperature. e.g Similarities and Differencies: In both natural and synthetic rubbers production, the monomers can be mixed in various desirable proportions to achieve a wider range of physical, mechanical, and chemical properties through the use additive. The formation of natural and synthetic rubbers are three step Free radical eliminations and substitutions reactions. Both Natural and synthetic rubber reactions require protectants against deterioration during the coagulation and drying (CIWMB). 2. In its natural form rubber is too soft to be used for any useful purposes.Natural rubbers tends to be sticky and soft at high temperatures; while at low temperatures they are brittle and stiff, making them difficult to process. This is due to a high degree of entropy. Therefore, its properties were improved using special processing techniques. During vulcanization, or curing, of rubber, individual polymer molecules are linked to other polymer molecules by polysulphide
Posted by J at 6:20 AM
Monday, July 22, 2019
Paying college football athletes Essay The Coach of a football team is just as important as any player performing on the field. In fact his power over the team surpasses that of any one single player, the coach can determine whether an entire season is a victory or a loss. Perhaps this is why Colleges justify paying a coach millions of dollar a year, but the players who are out there beside him next to nothing. Although a lot of the players that perform on the field week by week do get scholarships to help their tuition fees, food, and housing, this pales in comparison to the millions of dollars that the schools will bring in every season of football. It is wrong for colleges to use athletes to make money and not pay them or allow them to earn money in anyway involving their sport. Any coach of a successful college football team makes somewhere between 900,000 dollars and 5 million dollars annually. These are the coachÃ¢â¬â¢s of the big 10, big 12, SEC, ACC and many other conferences. For our top two college football teams in Michigan alone we have some of the highest paid coachÃ¢â¬â¢s. Brad Hoke the coach of our Michigan wolverines made 3. 25 million in 2011 and was the eighth top paid coach in college football. Mark Dantonio, coach of the Michigan state Spartans, made 1. 9 million according to USA Today. This is a small portion of what the whole industry of college football will make for a single college every year. It is wrong to not pay the ones who are even making all of this entertainment possible. It is one thing that colleges do not provide contracts for these players that compete so hard for the slim possibility of glory making it to the National Football League, but these colleges students are not even allowed to sell their signature for a profit. Colleges have prohibited the right of players to sell anything with their signed name on it to make a small some of money to fill their pockets. Now this does not affect every player in the NCAA, but it certainly does to the superstars of the league. An athlete can also be disciplined for selling their tickets to someone on game day, yet how much money do the directors of the NCAA earn as a result of the efforts of the student athletes? The truth is that the college athletes pay for a large portion of the salaries of every person employed by the NCAA. It only further demonstrates how colleges are abusing their control and power over their football players and more importantly what goes into their wallets. Another exploit in college football is the sale of jerseys by colleges. The NCAA wont allow colleges to sell football jerseys with a players name on the back of it, so the colleges resorted to selling it with a players number on the back. The number of a superstar football player is easily recognized locally in a college town. The schools are allowed to sell these jerseys, while the player who has worked hard to earn the right to play the game with it on never seeing a single penny of the profits earned. This does in theory put an idea of how much a single player can earn a school annually, but does go further than that, because a star can pull hundreds of fans in to a stadium that might not have filled up the year before. The money a school will makes from selling tickets to games is minuscule though in comparison with the money they will earn every when football starts in the fall with television contracts. Colleges setup contracts with major television networks so the whole nation can keep up with their fantasy football teams or enjoy the weekend flipping back and forth between games on TV. These contracts that school write up with networks earn millions of dollars every year and between actually airtime and all the advertisement that goes into it. Schools will also earn millions of dollars from sports booster donations. It is true that there does need to be money to cover cost of traveling, hotels, staff and maybe the college would even expect to earn back the 15-25,000 dollar yearly scholarshipÃ¢â¬â¢s that a lot of athletes receive, but when you compare the amount of revenue that student athletes generate for their colleges, what they receive in return is very small. Most people already think of colleges as being greedy for their outrageous tuition fees and everything else that goes along with needing to live on campus and attend classes. That they will hire students to teach classes so that professors do not have to, while the large majority of students who are attending these classes are paying thousands of dollars to be there. Their greed reaches beyond all that when it comes to college level sports at school that have competitive teams. These astonishing facts about the amount of money a season of college football produce yearly surprise and upset most fans. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the same as taking a test for someone only to let them turn it and receive an A on the exam, It is constantly debated about whether or not starting and back up players on college teams should get a yearly salary, considering the time and effort they put in does not always lead to a deal into the NFL. However it has not changed yet and does not seem to be heading that way anytime soon. It is corrupt, it is unjust, but most of all robs the hard working players who go out their every weekend to make everyone else Saturday that much more enjoyable.
Posted by J at 12:25 PM
Sunday, July 21, 2019
The Organization Culture Of Deloitte Management Essay Organization consist the two types such as the profit organization and non-profit organization. A profit organization looking for the generate income and the profit share with the employees. In a profit organization, the company decides to keep and arrange the profit to the lender or keep invest in their own business. For an example, the Deloittes Northern Group made a Ã £2,329m for the year end of May. The group made a Ã £569m profit share to the partners and the average profit earned by each partner increased from Ã £758,000 toÃ £789,000. A non-profit organization generally founded to serve a humanitarian. It channels the entire employees income into programs and service aimed at meeting or towards other issues such as deforestation and endangered species. Non-profit organization rely almost entirely on donation and grants from individuals, government entities and organization. For an example, Deloitte launched a Womens Initiative (WIN) in 1993. The WIN hosts more than 400 developments, networking and mentoring activities to help connections, strengthen skills and positively impact our organization and community. 2.1 The Types of Structure A recent article (Miranda Brookins) states that elements of organizational structure give companies effective and efficient ways to run their business, manage their employees and ensure that tasks are completed. Each element has its own benefit to impact the employee to achieve the organizations goals. The type of the organization structure involves the decisions about the work specialization, departmentalization, chain of command, span of control, centralization and decentralization and formalization. Work specialization It shows the degree to which tasks in the organization are divided into separate jobs with each step completed by a different person. It takes each task and assigns them to specific position. From a wider perspective, a job is synonymous with the physical and social aspects of the work environment. In contrary, the overspecialization can result in human diseconomies from boredom, fatigue, stress, poor quality, increased absenteeism and higher turnover. For example, an employee specializes in auditing skill but Deloitte should manage the employee to the audit department to exert his/her professional skill to the company. Departmentalization It based on the jobs are perform in the group together. Even though, Deloitte also has its own specific way of classifying and grouping work activities. The departmentalization creates the types of the execution based on the work of the employee assign their own product or brand with the geographical of customer demand. Departmentalization grouping jobs by the functions performed, product line, the basis of territory, the basis of product and the type of customer and needs. Chain of Command It shows the continuous line of authority that extends from upper levels of an organization to the lowest level of the organization and clarifies who reports to whom. There are three importance concepts to attach with theory such as authority, responsibility and unity of command. The authority shows the rights inherent in a managerial position to tell people what to do and to expect them to do it. Then the responsibility shows the obligation and expectation of the leaded to perform for the organization. The last, unity of command is the concept that a person should have one boss and should report only that person. For an example, the video conference of Deloitte should be the chairman from the head office to take over to all branches. Span of control It determines the number of employees who can effectively and efficiently supervised by a manager. It needs the number of managers an organization needs which based on the number of employees and departments a company has. Centralization and Decentralization Centralization shows the degree to which decision making is concentrated at upper levels in the organization. Organization in which top managers make all the decision and lower-level employees simply carry out the order. Besides that, decentralization shows the organization in which decision making is pushed down to the managers who are closest to the action. An article (Osmond Vitez) said that centralization develop the companys mission and vision, and set objectives for managers and employees to follow when achieving these goals. Decentralization organization utilizes individuals with a variety of expertise and knowledge for running various business operations. Formalization It shows the jobs within the organization are standardized and the extent to which employee behavior is guided by rules and procedures. A highly formalized jobs offer little over what is to be done and the low formalization means fewer constraint on how employees do their work. For example, the IT department of Deloitte format up the time of the connection to each branch and the performance of the video conference. So that, the interviewer wont waste the time to wait for the connection and can arrange the accurate time to arrive the room. 2.2 Organization Culture Organization culture is a system of shared meaning and common beliefs held by organizational member that determines in a large degree and how they act towards each other. The implication of culture is a perception, shared and descriptive. The values, symbols, rituals, myths a practices are the way that the people do the things around here. Innovation and Risk taking According to Robert F. Brands (13, August 2012), an effective innovation leader should encourage creativity and risk taking, while also practicing a tolerance for failure. The setting and agreeing on the risk taking bandwidth help to practice the leader recognized as a learning experience when the process had failure. For an example, in 20th November 2012 a leader of Deloitte named Gartner evaluates on the ability to articulate logical statement about current and future market direction, innovation, customer needs and competitive forces. At the same time, consultants are rated on their understanding of how market forces can be exploited to create the opportunities to the provider. Attention to details It is a degree to which employees are expected to exhibit precision, analysis, and attention to detail. It defined the organization look more details to accurate the values of the organization comprise with the organization culture. For an example, the senior manager of Deloitte, Kurt Hauermann looks for the data risk management, data management technology and data governance as the dimensions that uniquely combine to deliver business value. Outcome Orientation It is a management focuses on the result rather than on processes used to achieve them. It extends into the workplace, and employees are reviewed regularly on a performance basis and the only thing that matter is the end of the result. People orientation People orientation takes into consideration the effect of outcome of people within the organization and it is also sensitive to individual with the decisions. The culture cares at the employee in the organization. For an example, Deloitte believes that the employees can do their best work when they growth and know the value. Besides that, Deloitte has 148,000 people work in 150 countries in the organization and the developing talent is a top priority because people are the very reason client service excellence is a hallmark of Deloitte. Team Orientation It defined the works organized around teams rather than individual. A recent article (Donna Eigen) shows that there are number of tactics that can foster a team orientation, from team building and diversity workshops to retreats, merit system that identify and recognize team-oriented behavior and processes that facilitate project teams. Aggressiveness It determined that the employees are expected to be competitive rather than easy going. It looks for the immediate results and lead to immediate reward. In June 2012, Deloitte discuss about the objectives of transparency and financial stability is often seen as being juxta-positioned. The impact on the public policy objective debate and highlighted the question of the interaction in the financial of Deloitte. Stability It means that the organization activities emphasize maintaining the status quo rather than change. In New York, 16 March 2012, Deloitte welcomes the Financial Stability Boards call to improve the dialogue between external auditors and prudential supervisors and regulators of financial institutions in the wake of the recent global financial crisis. 2.2.1 Relationship between organizational structure and culture The organizational culture develops around the structure and the organizational culture can change when the management changes the worker to assign to the roles in the same structure. According to Shane Thornton (April 18, 2012), an organizations culture is an informal, collectively held grouping of ideas and values, as well as the type of workplace relationships and ways of doing things within the organization. Organizational structure is the way to arrange the management and the lines of the authority. It determines the performance within the company and helps the organizational culture run with the efficiency and consistency to create its own organizational culture. Conclusion At the end in this task, it defined the profit organization and non-profit organization of Deloitte. Besides that, it shows the specialization, departmentalization, chains of command, spans of control, centralization, decentralization and formalization of Deloitte. After that, it shows the organization culture such as attention to details, team orientation, people orientation, outcome orientation, aggressiveness and stability of Deloitte. Finally I show the relationship between the organization structure and culture. Introduction It defines the functions of the management within the Deloitte. And list the approaches of the leadership of Deilotte. 3.0 Management Management involves coordinating and overseeing the work activities of other so that their activities are completed efficiently and effectively. It performs the managers function within the Planning, Organizing, Leading and Controlling. Planning Planning defined the goals, establishing strategies to achieve goals, developing plans to integrate and coordinate the activities within the company. It is close connected with the creativity and the innovation, it also set up the objectives and develops the appropriate course of action to achieve these objectives. For an example, Deloitte plans to get a new video conferencing system to get close and communicate easily with all foreign branches to get the high decision making. Organizing It is arranging and structure work to accomplish the organizational goals. It shows that how the leader organize the team to achieve the goals according to the plans. Besides that, Deloitte organized the Nortel Network Ltd to apply the video conferencing system and the Nortel Network Ltd will carry on all the setting and performing of the video conferencing system. Leading It defined the working through people to accomplish goals. It means how the leader uses their skill to lead the group to achieve the goals and the successful. Leading requires to coach, assists, and problem solve with employees. Then, the Deloitte decided who will attend the video conferencing to get the decision making. Controlling It is a continuously work to monitoring, comparing, and correcting work to check the result against goals and make sure that it is following the plan. After that, Deloitte will use the video conferencing to control the branches performances and has a close contact with the branches. 3.1 Leadership Leadership is the art to motivate the group to against the goals. A recent article (Susan Ward) states that effective leadership is based upon ideas, but wont happen unless those ideas can be communicate to others in a way that engages them. Different managers can employ the different strategies to lead the employees to against the goals. According to David Ingram, transformational and transactional leadership are polar opposites when it comes to the underlying theories of management and motivation. Transformational Leadership It determined the management of the day-to-day operation and crafts strategies to the next level of performance and success. It will provide the opportunities for personal and professional growth for each employee if the transformational leader sets goals and incentives to push their subordinates to the higher performance levels. For example, in 1June 2011 Barry Salzberg is the global Chief Ececutive Officer of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu (DTTL), he sets the strategies direction of the Deloitte global network and it comprises 47 member firms operation in 150 countries with approximately 200,000 people. Transactional Leadership It defined the normal flow of operations by more concerned with maintaining. The leader will use the rules to motivate employees to perform at their beast. It wont care in strategically guiding an organization to a position and these ledgers are solely concerned with conform all the performance flow. For example, Steve Almond is the Chairman of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limiteds (DTTL) Global Board of Directors. He had served as Managing Partner of International Markets at Deloitte LLP in the United Kingdom and he looks after Deloitte United Kingdoms International relationship and activities. Conclusion At the end, it also shows the planning, organizing, leading and controlling based on the Deloitte and it determined the transformational leadership and the transactional leadership with Deloitte. Introduction It is going to discuss about how does Deloitte motivate and perform their employee to work for them. It defines the ideas that Deloitte provide to motivate to work hard to get the advantages. 4.0 Motivation and Performance Motivation is the process that account for an individuals intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining the goals. An article (Kendra Cherry) states that motivation involves that the biological, emotional, social and cognitive forces that activate behavior. It describes the purpose that the person does something. The article from Deloitte (Ivana Ãâ¦ÃÅ"Ã hovÃ ¡, FinanÃâÃ nÃ management, May 2009) states that the motivation and compensation are part of aÃ series of articles focused on performance management where Deloitte experts introduce individual components of the integrated performance management system in companies. This article deals with motivation and compensation. According to the official website of Deloitte within the Human Capital, it states that they using the motivation tools available to a financial and non-financial and it also determined that if the employees do not feel close to the strategys value and direction and motivates to fulfill the companys designed goals, the company is not likely to successfully reach its goals. From the Deloittes official website, the financial rewards and financial compensation system are the motivation tools available to the employees of the Deloitte. A recent article (Carol Bainbridge), states that extrinsic motivation refers to motivation that comes from outside an individual and the motivating factors are external, or outside, rewards such as money or grades. Deloitte believes that the rewards system is the right driver to the employees perform the work commitment and employees performance. However, attention should be paid to non-financial incentive tool. It is more difficult to define these tools as an important role to motivate employees to perform. Broadly speaking, they can be included in the corporate culture. The reason is often the corporate culture which the employee expects in the company of their choice. Figure 1. Relationship between the employee and the wage the employee received of the Deloitte From figure 1, the employees quality is reflected in a certain component of the employees compensation. According to the performance management of Deloitte, they consider that the compensation aligned with success in fulfill the goals of the company and often also the goals of the team and the individual. So from the figure 1, Deloitte use the proportion of the individual components of the employee total based on the job and the job description. Besides that, Deloitte indicate the high position of the employee in the structure will get the high proportion. Conclusion At the end, Deloitte use the rewards and compensation to motivate the employee to work hard and show the benefit of the reward and compensation to drive the employee work hard. Introduction It is going to show what technology that Deloitte used to communicate to the foreign branches and its functioning. 5.0 The impact of Technology on Deloitte A technology system can drive an organization to efficiency and effectiveness. The efficiency based on how we do the things right so the organization wont waste the time to delay achieves their goals. Besides that, the effectiveness is defined to do the right things, it show that the organization know what they want to do. The case study from the assignment, it shows that the video communication is the way that the Deloitte costs down through the video communication when they reach more employees and branches. Video communication can help to cut down many costs such as traveling cast. According to the Yezdi Pavri (managing partner for Deloitte Canadas Toronto office), he said that being able to meet clients and colleagues in real time without travel is an efficient, effective and environmentally considerate way to address their needs. In a high telepresence room, all the branches who in the different country appear very close and the experience can get with being there with face to face. Nortel Network Ltd is a multinational telecommunication equipment manufacturer in Canada. Deloitte had chosen Nortel Networks Ltd to manage the service of the video conferencing. In a result, Nortel said that in a statement that a company that spends $23 million a year on travel can use telepresence and videoconferencing to recover 385,000 hours of lost productivity reduce its carbon footprint by up to 4,200 tons and save up to $7 million in U.S. dollars. So, the video conference can be more environmentally considerate and go to the green innovation. In contrary, video conferencing also has its disadvantages be the barrels to communicate with each other. Deloitte has 600 offices in more than 150 countries so the time equation is the barrel that Deloitte communicate with the foreign branches. Sometimes, if unlucky have an emergency problem and the branches of England need to contract to the Singapore branches; it may be will fail to get a communication because the time between England and Singapore differ at least 8hours. Besides that, installations of the technology in video conference need a high tech equipment to fix it. For Deloitte, if needs to install the equipment, Deloitte needs to pay for the head office and the all branches. Many feathers make a bed; Deloitte has more than 600 offices in the foreign countries. So Deloitte needs to pay for the payment within these more than 600 offices and it will become a huge expense. Conclusion Finally, it shows the Deloitte uses the video conferencing to communicate to the foreign branches. It also shows that the effectiveness and the efficiency of Deloitte. Besides that, it also consists the advantages and disadvantages of video conferencing.
Posted by J at 6:42 PM
The Issue Of Cultural Relativism Human Rights Essay When it comes to human rights, the issue of cultural relativism is widely discussed. Majority of the human rights literature encompasses the western and non-western argument on what best illustrates what human rights should be. As a result of these debates, comes the discussion of cultural relativism. Cultural relativism, at first glance, seems like quite a reasonable argument towards safeguarding different cultural groups. However when we begin to analyse the cultural relativism theory, we come to find that it is not quite as reasonable or even as practical as it seems to be. Cultural relativism seems to not only ignore human rights violations, but actually seems to approve them. Furthermore, it hardly disapproves any cultural or religious practices. Cultural relativism ignores the necessity to oppose violations and other human rights, and also ignores the freedom of choice to do so. This paper seeks to prove that there is no conceivable claim in supporting cultural relativism, and will discuss and analyse the issue of conflict between human rights and cultural relativism. This will provide some insight on how some scholars, anthropologist, philosophers, and political scientists have debated over this issue and how some of them have questioned the validity of cultural relativism in relation to human rights. I will discuss both cultural relativism and universal human rights and analyse the conflicts that have risen between them and their ensuing practices, as well as give examples to show the absurdity of the cultural relativist claim. I will conclude by p roviding evidence that shows that cultural relativists are indeed human rights violators, as well as show that their notion on cultural relativism proves to be highly contradictory and unreliable, now and in the future. The Human Rights Debate: Cultural Relativism versus Universalism 2.1 What is Cultural Relativism? The idea of Cultural relativism was developed by Franz Boas (1858-1942) in 1911. Robert Redfield described cultural relativism as values expressed in any culture are to be both understood and valued only according to the way people who carry that culture see things. Melville Herskovits gives an even more elaborate definition of cultural relativism as a philosophy which, in recognizing the values set up by every society to guide its own life, lays stress on the dignity inherent in every body of custom, and on the need of tolerance of conventions though they may differ from ones own. He continues by going on to say that each culture is said to constitute a total social world that reproduces itself through enculturation, the process by which values, emotional dispositions, and embodied behaviours are transmitted from one generation to the next. From the descriptions above, we can therefore say that cultural relativism is the principle by which a human beings beliefs should be perceived in accordance with his or her own culture. This concept of cultural relativism came about during discussions about the origin of human rights. There are quite a few ideas and claims that have led to the concept of cultural relativism, one of them being Kants argument that human beings are incapable of gaining unmediated knowledge of the world, and that the human mind interferes with all our experiences of the world, thus structuring our perceptions universally. However Herder disagreed with Kants argument saying that human experiences were mediated by cultural structures as well. As a result of this debate between Kant and Herder, came the belief of ethnocentrism. The Universal Human Rights Doctrine The Universal Declaration of Human Rights set the pattern for the contemporary conception of human rights.It was established as a result of the World War II atrocities as a means of protecting citizens and residents of various states. The conflict between the universal human rights doctrine and cultural relativism came about during the establishment of the Universal human rights doctrine in 1948. The conflict arose due to the theory that there was some kind of dominance over some cultures, and that the universal human rights doctrine come from European or Western philosophy. This doctrine was the Universalist approach to human rights that placed value on individuals. On the contrary, some theorists believe that the enactment of these human rights is not the only way that human rights exist. There is the theory that people are born with natural, God-given rights and that God is the absolute law-maker who bestowed upon us some basic human rights. For this reason itself, cultural relativism critics therefore argue that there should be no exception to the universal claim to human rights as some of these rights are already natural and God-given. 2.3 Cultural Relativism versus Universalism Now that we have defined cultural relativism and the universal declaration of human rights, one question comes to mind based on the two theories. Can universal human rights exist in a multicultural world? In other words, can the concept of cultural relativism really coexist with the notion of universal human rights? Naturally, cultural relativists argue that there are indeed moral justifications underlying the claim that various practices and beliefs differ from society to society and should be accepted as being relative to other cultural beliefs. For example, women in some cultures that undergo female genital mutilation are regarded as clean and pure. One culture may believe that there is indeed some moral justification towards this practice, as women who dont go through the cut are considered unclean and are seen as outcasts in their societies. On the other hand, a different cultural group may practice eating of dead bodies as a ritual. Cultural relativists would therefore claim that one cannot justly say which culture is right or wrong as this proves to be relative within different cultures. It is therefore possible to say that, from the cultural relativist point of view, there is no particular truth in what is right or wrong but rather the truth depends on what a particular culture believes is right or wrong. This observation in turn then brings me to my next point. If the views of the truth on what is right or wrong is relative, then the issue of morality definitely plays a huge role in this debate. Our moral beliefs indicate the kind of environment or culture we grew up in. Therefore, if we were born in Somalia, we would believe that it is morally right to go through female circumcision as a rite of passage. However, if we grew up in the western world, then we would not believe in female circumcision. We can therefore see the relativists argument of cultural relativism in this case, because if cultural relativism exists, then naturally, morality will also be relative. Additionally, to support his stance, the relativist will also argue that tolerance comes into play when it comes to cultural relativism. Contemporary society is often referred to as a multicultural world, with people from various cultures increasingly becoming accustomed to interacting with people from other cultures. As a result of this, the ability to learn to respect and tolerate different cultural practices and beliefs has developed. In todays society, people have shown an increased reluctance to criticise other cultures for various reasons. One of these reasons could be the fear of history repeating itself. An example of this is the European invasion of different parts of the world, including Africa, Asia and America, in the name of spreading Christianity and education. The aftermath of this resulted in slavery, apartheid and many other violations. The reluctance to criticise other cultures in this case arises from the fear of making the same violations as in the past. Another reason why there is the reluctance to criticise other cultures is that people feel the need to be tolerant of other cultures. Truth be tol d, tolerance is indeed essential for the sake of living in this multicultural world of ours peacefully. However, one should not feel obligated to tolerate particular cultural beliefs, especially if it involves some form of human rights violation. However, relativists can argue that tolerating these different cultural practises has led to the acceptance of some of these various practices especially in the western world, for example, the Muslim veil. The contradiction here comes about when these same Muslim women are undergoing various human rights violations as a result of their cultural beliefs, for example, female genital mutilation. In this particular case, is it possible for relativists to defend human rights as well as justify cultural relativism? This surely indicates some contradiction in the cultural relativism theory, for one cannot support cultural relativism and defend human rights at the same time. It is true that people from different cultures have different ideas of what is right and what is wrong. Warburton describes moral relativism as values held by a particular society at a particular time.However, moral relativism, just like cultural relativism can also be perceived in different ways by different cultures. In other words, relativists see that moral values are valid only within some cultural boundaries. Some examples illustrated by anthropologists as morally acceptable in some cultures and condemned by others are polygamy, genocide and sexism. Consequently, the moral difference in these cultures brings about the issue of ethics. Ethical relativism also promotes the belief that morality is, and cannot be universal. Moral relativism is therefore justified by relativist through various examples. For instance, practices regarding clothing and decency. This can be justified by one culture in that it is their moral obligation and duty to have women dress in a decent manner so a s not to compromise their ethics. Some cultures would therefore agree with these practises under the moral principle that it is the duty of society to protect the women of their society. With that beings said, I do not believe that there is any logical connection between cultural relativism and tolerance as is illustrated in the relativism point of view. Furthermore, I disagree with moral relativism because despite some moral beliefs being culturally relative, there are other beliefs that are not relative. Practices such sexism and dressing depend on the local customs and traditions. However, violations such as torture, slavery and genocides, should definitely have universal moral standards. Therefore not all practices should be deemed as being relative just because some practises are deemed as being so. The Asian Values Argument Today, there has been a tremendous improvement over the years towards the universal system of human rights. There is now the increased need for accountability and responsibility for individuals and society. However, this is not the case in Asian societies. The Asian society claims to come from a culture with an exceptional set of values. This was done while they criticised western ideas and culture. According to Asian values, human rights are culturally specific, communities take precedence over individuals, social and economic rights take precedence over political and civil rights, and rights are a matter of national sovereignty.This concept has therefore been celebrated by relativists, and used as an example to support the relativist theory of cultural relativism. The issue of Asian values was brought about during discussions by East and South Eastern government leaders. The Journal of Democracy explains that the basis of Asian values is said to contribute to high growth rates to certain cultural traits. These characteristics include hard work, frugality, discipline and team work. Western democracy hinders rapid development.With that being said, it was easier for relativists to justify their rejection towards universalism because there was an increase in economic growth in the Asian region that accompanied this debate. In the 1970s, some countries in the Sub Saharan region had tried to oppose these liberal views of the Western world. This proved to be unsuccessful as they did not harbour the same economic results as their Asian counterparts. In addition to this, as a result of the tremendous economic growth in the Asian region, the Asian values debate received the attention and even admiration of the international community. Asian authoritaria ns argue from a position of economic and social success. This has therefore presented a challenge towards the universal theory of human rights because developmentalists have used the concept of Asian values to justify cultural relativism, and have even presented evidence that has shown tremendous success in some Asian states. In spite of this, the Asian values argument has still proven to promote various human rights violations. An example of these human rights violations is the situation of the Harijans, or the people outside the Indian caste system, who had the lowest social status? The Harijans, are also referred to as the untouchables of the Caste System. In more economically advanced Asian states, the use of soft authoritarianism is said to be sufficient. Additionally another way in which cultural relativism in conjunction with the Asian values argument poses a threat toward universalism is the issue of technology. As we embrace the growth of information technology, we see that this improves globalisation as communication and other forms of interaction are enhanced. However, in states such as Malaysia and Singapore, there has been an establishment of authoritarian interferences by the government, where services such as the internet are being monitored or even blocked. This poses a potential risk and hindrance towards globalisation. In spite of the Asian values seemingly strong argument, the Asian regions success seems to have been short-lived as the decline in economic growth has somewhat changed the way in which the international community views their Asian values argument. With that said, if we really take all this into consideration, it is possible to see that it is ridiculous to create standards of morality based on these societies as every society perceives morality according to their own interests and interpretations. It is also quite impossible to permit these major differences in the interpretation of human rights standards, if they are to protect individuals. The Asian Values argument is therefore highly irrelevant, as we can see, because the Asian society places its citizens lives at risk as it violates various human rights in the name of Asian values and attempting to justify their actions as being culturally relative. Criticism of Cultural Relativism We live in a world where cultural relativism is constantly questioned and debated. As earlier stated, relativism came about as a result of arguments on ethical issues. In support of cultural relativism, Benedictexplains that cultures are coexisting and equally valid patterns of life, which mankind has created for itself from the raw materials of existence.According to Benedict, all cultures are equally valid as they embrace different views on morality and ethics. However, Kluckhohndisagreed with Benedicts doctrine on cultural relativism saying that this excluded any kind of moral criticism, his argument being that if one accepted Benedicts theory, then they could not, complain about any kind of evil against humanity including slavery, communism, terrorism and many other forms of evil.The perception of cultural relativism is that peoples rights depend on their nationality, culture, and religion. Therefore according to relativist, the rights of people in Nigeria are different from thos e in China or anywhere in the world. Namazie gives the following examples to demonstrate the absurdity of these cultural relativist claims;  An 18-year-old woman was burnt to death by her father after having refused to marry the man he had chosen, in Germany. The courts gave her father a reduced sentence, saying he was practicing his culture and religion.  In Iran, women and girls are forcibly veiled under the threat of imprisonment and lashes, and cultural relativists say that it is their religion and must be respected.  In Holland, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs states that Irans prisons are satisfactory for third world standards, allowing the forcible return of asylum seekers. With each of these examples, among all other forms of evil against humanity, we can clearly see that cultural relativism promotes these crimes. Namazie goes on to argue that the basis of the cultural relativist debate opposes the imposition of western views onto non-westerners. How, then, is it that when it comes to using the telephone, or the car, the mullah does not say it is western and incompatible with Muslim society?It is therefore safe to say that these countries are using the claim to cultural relativism as an excuse to get away with various human rights violations. Relativists using the imposition of western culture as an excuse does not hold water as these same countries still use western ideas in different aspects of their lives. Furthermore, these countries are, in fact, quite westernised societies. The fact that these are former colonies of the British and French empires, who now speak western languages, is proof of their westernisation. In addition to this, Namazie goes on to say that in respect to cultural relativists, there should be a clear distinction between human beings and human beliefs and cultures. She adds that human beings are the element of importance in the universalism-relativism argument and not their beliefs. She adds that human beings are sacred and worthy of the highest respect and it is human beings that are meant to be equal and not their beliefs.The reason as to why cultural relativism is deemed as racist and discriminatory is because, while the universal human rights doctrine aims to protect human beings as being the most sacred creature, relativists are seen as merely choosing to forgo the human being and are only worried about protecting their culture, which in most cases harms the human beings in their societies. Cultural relativism also promotes minoritism, as different cultures embrace the classification of people in their societies. For example, the Caste system of Hinduism which rejects equal treatment of different caste members in Hindu society. As stated earlier, these individuals are denied various rights such as education, healthcare and jobs. Cultural relativism, in turn, denies the victims of these situations any access to universal standards. Furthermore, since cultural relativism supports groups of cultures, it logical to say that individual rights in these cultures are disregarded. This means that individuals have no say in anything as society speaks for them and decides what is right or wrong for the individual. Moreover, Universalists believe that cultural relativism has caused more harm than good towards cultures. An example of this is the war in between Israel and Palestine. The Israeli culture claims that they are fighting to get their holy land, Jerusalem, back. However, th is war has killed thousands of Muslims in the name of doing what is culturally right in accordance with the relativist theory. In the past, anthropologists were not afraid to show their discontentment about various unjust practises such as Apartheid against South Africans and the acts of genocide performed by the Nazi. Today, however, they have not spoken against similar practises that endanger human life such as female circumcision and even genocide in Rwanda and Sudan. How, then is it possible for one to rely on a theory that contradicts itself in this manner? If we therefore reflect on these relativist theories, cultural relativism just seems very unrealistic and impractical. Conclusion All in all, although we learn about the virtue of tolerance from the cultural relativism theory, it is safe to say that the reason why we believe it is so important to be tolerant of other cultures is because we are also want to experience our own freedom, thus we do not want other cultures to criticize our own. Nobody wants to have their freedom restricted, and therefore if we want to enjoy the freedom to enjoy our beliefs we would not dare to limit the freedom of the beliefs of cultures we do not agree with. Furthermore, we can clearly see how overall, the cultural relativism theory seems to make sense. However, under careful scrutiny, it does not make for sound argument. It is obvious to see, just as Rachels argues, that the mere fact that there is no real truth when it comes to morality due to the difference in cultural beliefs, proves to show that the cultural relativism argument attempts to extract the definition of morality from the simple basis that people do not agree with it in the first place. While different countries have the right to demand their rights in various ways, there are fundamental doctrines that should be made universal. Dress, Language, food and other minor beliefs and traditions can vary, and cultures should be allowed the freedom to practice them. However practices such as slavery, sexism, female genital mutilation, and infanticide, among other human rights violations must be held up to universal standards. Cultural relativism is therefore not an answer to human rights concerns, nor will it be in the future.
Posted by J at 12:59 AM
Saturday, July 20, 2019
The Second Coming In his poem "The Second Coming," Yeats predicts cataclysmic changes about to be wrought upon human kind. He states, "Things fall apart; the center cannot hold;/Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world," (1511). This statement is in line with Modernistic thought of this time period. Modernistic writers felt that traditional teachings left something to be desired, and that it was time for change. There was a huge upheaval in religious beliefs and current religious convictions were being challenged with new scientific knowledge. Yeats foresees spiritual changes in the words, "Surely some revelation is at hand;/Surely the Second Coming is at hand..."(1511). The Modernistic period was also a time when questions were asked about the old, established, and customary beliefs. Writers attempted to challenge people to think about archaic ways of conduct, and to check the motivations behind their beliefs. Joseph Conrad stated in Heart of Darkness, "Black shapes crouched, lay, sat between the trees leaning against the trunks, clinging to the earth, half coming out, half effaced within the dim light, in all the attitudes of pain, abandonment, and despair,"(1377). He portrays in these lines the ugliness of Europeans treatment of another culture. He is challenging his reader to adopt another attitude, but does not ever tell his reader how to feel, another defining feature of literary Modernism. Conrad tells us about a Black man with a white cloth tied about his neck. Again he does not interpret this white cloth, but leaves it open to our interpretation, "He had tied a bit of white worsted round his neck - Why?"(1377). Conrad questions the motives o f white Europeans in Africa, repeatedly referring to their greed: ". . . weak-eyed devil of a rapacious and pitiless folly..."(1377). Conrad, in his statement about their building of a railway, "The cliff was not in the way or anything but this objectless blasting was all the work going on"(1376), asks his reader to observe the violence against a country, not only its people, but the actual land.
Posted by J at 7:16 AM
Friday, July 19, 2019
"Who is YHWH? However we interpret it, the Name of God means ultimate dominion: He-Whom-There-Is-No-Escaping." ~Thomas Cahill, The Gifts of the Jews1 Ultimate dominion, that GodÃ¢â¬â¢s rule is final, is the heart and soul of the Book of Genesis. In the beginning there was God; later, God created man (Gen. 1.1, 1.27).2 But how does GodÃ¢â¬â¢s ultimate dominion affect the relationship that develops between God and man? Several times in Genesis God makes a covenant with man (Gen. 6.18, 17.2-8, 28.13-14). Explicit in this agreement, man is put in charge of perpetuating GodÃ¢â¬â¢s covenant, or in essence perpetuating the Israelite race. On the one hand, then, it is the fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s job to impart knowledge of this important relationship to his son. On the other hand, the son must also take an active role in learning about and connecting with God. To do so, however, the son is forced to separate himself from his father in order to establish a singular or individual relationship with God. Juggling the fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s role and the sonÃ¢â¬â¢s role in the passing of the faith from one generation to the next creates a tension t hat at first seems to put a strain on the ultimate dominion of God. It is this very tension, however, that reinforces God as the preeminent being. Examining this relationship of father and son for every male character throughout Genesis would prove overly exhaustive and unnecessary. In fact, the characters themselves are not of singular importance to the doctrine of Genesis. Rather, it is the formula of separation that emerges as the larger "lesson," so to speak, inherent in Genesis. This formula can be derived through an extensive comparison of two primary characters, which, of course, can then be extrapolated to incorporate othe... ... As we have seen, the separation of father from son in Genesis is necessary so that the son can develop an equally personal relationship with God and, in turn, sustain an equally living and vital knowledge of God as the absolute provider and father. Further, the more radical the separation the more strongly impressed in the sonÃ¢â¬â¢s mind becomes the separation and, in turn, the ultimate dominion of God. It is little wonder, then, that the Hebrew interpretation of God, YHWH, has been carried through hundreds of generations and survived great epochsÃ¢â¬âafter all, YHWH is "He-Whom-There-Is-No-Escaping" (Cahill 113). Works Cited 1. Thomas Cahill, The Gifts of the Jews: How a Tribe of Desert Nomads Changed the Way Everyone Thinks and Feels (New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc., 1998), 113. 2. The Holy Bible, Authorized (King James) Version.
Posted by J at 1:33 PM