Monday, September 30, 2019

Inequalities in Education Essay

The sociological study of education looks at the way different social institutions affect the process of education and how this impacts on students. Education is widely perceived to be a positive social institution where individuals can acquire knowledge and learn new skills. However, some would argue that this is not the case and that education produces an unequal society and is a negative institution where individuals are socialised to accept such inequality. This essay will explore the inequalities in education to establish how they occur. By examining Marxist, Functionalist and Interactionist perspectives, explanations for such inequalities can be understood. Historically, in Britain formal schooling was a preserve of higher social classes. Education was largely provided by private institutions, such as churches form the middle ages onwards, with an aim to provide the bureaucratic elite with a means to run government. The state first assumed full responsibility for education in 1870, with the Foster’s Education Act. In 1880, school attendance was made compulsory up to the age of 10, ensuring basic primary education for all. (Haralambos and Holborn, 2004) The state took responsibility for secondary education with the Fisher Education Act of 1918 and attendance was made compulsory until the age of 14. The formal leaving age was raised again on two occasions, in 1947 to 15, and to 16 in 1972. By 1900 only 1.2 per cent of pupils stayed in education after the age of 17 and by 1939, 5.8 per cent of pupils stayed in education past the age of 17, but it was not until the 1960s, when polytechnic universities were introduced, that everyone capable of benefiting from higher education was able to attend a higher education establishment. (Haralambos and Holborn, 2004) However, Margaret Thatcher’s Conservative government of the 1980s began to view education in terms of the needs of the economy and started to reduce state economic investment. Thatcher’s government had a general mistrust of the liberal and free-thinking culture of higher education institutes and began to restrict spending in Arts based subjects. (Haralambos and Holborn, 2004) The 1988 Education Act introduced the common national curriculum, which provided guidelines for teachers about what they were required to teach. (Giddens, 2001) The National Curriculum was introduced to ensure that everyone would re ceive the same basic level of  education. In western societies there is a general agreement that education should be based on an equality of opportunity. However, there is evidence to suggest that people with certain social characteristics succeed more than others. (Kirby et al, 1999) Sociologists have focused on social background to explain the relative failure of working class children compared to middle class children. Evidence suggests that the higher a person’s social class, they are more likely to achieve greater education success. The most obvious explanation for differences is the intelligence of the individual. The 1944 Education Act established the tripartite system. Children were allocated to one of three types of school, grammar, technical or secondary modern, on the basis of the results of an intelligence test, taken at 11 years, the eleven-plus. (Haralambos and Holborn, 2004) Grammar schools provided an education for those who performed highly on the eleven plus, while other pupils who has a lower score were taught in either a technical or secondary modern school. The eleven plus examination showed a correlation between social class, where more middle class children scored highly and therefore gained places at grammar schools. (Haralambos and Holborn, 2004) However, Britain has a differential educational system that gives people the right to privately educate their children if they wish and can afford to. League tables of schools, which are published every year, show consistently show private schools, such as Eton, Cheltenham Ladies College and Harrow, are the best achieving schools. Hans Eysenck, was a bio-psychologist who believed that genetics play a fundamental part in determining IQ. Eysenck wrote â€Å"What children take out of schools is proportional to what they bring to schools in terms of IQ† (Eysenck, 1971: Cited in Taylor et al, 2000) From this viewpoint it is possible to argue that class differences in educational achievement are largely based from class differences in genetically based IQ. However, most sociologist emphasise the importance of environmental factors in determining IQ differences, namely motivation, knowledge and skills, which are learnt rather than genetically predetermined. In this case class differences in educational attainment may be due to class backgrounds rather than class  genes. (Taylor et al, 2000) Many sociologists have also argued that the language used in IQ tests favours the middle classes, as it is closer to their spoken language. A variety of figures demonstrate the continued inequality in educational achievement by social class. The Youth Cohort Study, conducted in 2002, collected data on 7,238 18-year-olds. The results of the study show that 75 per cent of those with professional parents were still in education as opposed to 55 per cent of those whose parents have few skills. (Haralambos and Holborn, 2004) Not only were those with higher-class parents more likely to continue to education, their qualifications likely to be higher as well. Just 22 per cent of children of routine workers had at level three qualification compared to 65 per cent of those children with professional parents. (Haralambos and Holborn, 2004) With the election of the Labour government in 1997, there was a return to the concern of equal opportunities in education. The Labour party was elected on a promise to improve the education system. However, by the late 1990s, the language had changed with concern being expressed for social exclusion and improving standards rather than class inequality. (Haralambos and Holborn, 2004) Social exclusion relates to the alienation of certain groups, connected to a person’s class, living standards and education. The close relationship between low levels of education and social exclusion has been highlighted in recent years. Failure to acquire basic skills such as literacy and numeracy can place a person at a distinct disadvantage. Functionalists view society as being structured with many integrated segments which work together to form society as a whole. Each of theses segments, such as the economy, judiciary and education, perform crucial functions to satisfy the needs of society and create a harmonious society. Functionalists view education as one of the most important components of society. According to Emile Durkheim, education is the â€Å"influence exercised by adult generations on those who are not yet ready for social life.† (Durkheim, 2003, Page 28) Durkheim asserted that moral values are the foundation of cohesive social order and that the education system has a responsibility to teach a commitment to a common morality. (Kendall, 2005) Education has an  important role in the socialisation by enabling children to internalise social rules which contribute to the functioning of society. Talcott Parsons argued that the role of education is to instil the value of individual achievement in a way t hat the family can not. Education is the main source of secondary socialisation in the same way that the family is the main source of primary socialisation. (Giddens, 2001) In the modern society, individuals are judged by what they have achieved and schools prepare pupils for this by measuring success with graded examinations. For Parsons, schools operate on meritocratic principles, where pupils are treated equally and if pupils work hard they will achieve the most merit. This teaches children through the values of achievement and the value of equal opportunity, which is important for functionalists because it ensures that the best people will fill the most important positions in future careers. (Haralambos and Holborn, 2004) Individuals will accept their position as they believe that everyone has been given the same opportunities through education. Pupils will achieve success through ability and hard work irrespective of other social factors, such as social background, ethnicity and gender. While the funct ionalist view of education is very positive, predominantly issues of inequality are denied. Marxists have a very different view of the purpose of education. Marxism is a structural perspective of society, which focuses on the class struggle and exploitative relationship between the ruling class and the working class. The struggle begins with the opposing interests of the ruling class, who control the economy, and the working class who sell their labour to earn an income. (Giddens, 2001) Bowles and Gintis write from a Marxist perspective, which is highly critical of the capitalist society. Like Karl Marx, Bowles and Gintis argue that work in capitalist societies in exploitative and alienating for the workforce. The main role of education in the capitalist society is in the reproduction of labour power. The first and major role of education is to provide the capitalists with a workforce with personality and attitudes most useful to them, or more simply, a subservient workforce. (Haralambos and Holborn, 2004) The education system helps meet these needs and objectives through the hidden curriculum. It is not what pupils learn from lessons and examinations that is important, but the form  the teaching takes and the organisation of the school day. The hidden curriculum shapes the future workforce by promoting subservience, encouraging an acceptance of hierarchy, fragmenting lessons and motivating students with external rewards as opposed to the pleasure of learning. (Haralambos and Holborn, 2004) With the acceptance of hierarchy, pupils learn to take orders, obey them and accept they have little control of the subjects they study, all in preparation for the relationships they will have with future employers. Bowles and Gintis believe that the formal parts of the curriculum correspond to the needs of capitalist employers by providing a surplus of skilled labour. (Haralambos and Holborn, 2004) Marxists reject the view that the education system is meritocratic and believe that social class is the most important factor influencing achievement. While Marxism and Functionalism focus on how society affects educational attainment, interactionist sociologists look at how individuals can shape their own experience. Labelling theory was developed by Howard Becker in his study of deviance but was later applied to the way teachers interact with their pupils. Becker wrote from an interactionist perspective, which is a non-structural approach to sociology and emphasises an individual ability to control actions. (Giddens, 2001) Becker interviewed sixty teachers from Chicago and found that they have a tendency to share the same picture of an ‘ideal’ pupil. The ‘ideal’ pupil is highly motivated, intelligent and well-behaved, pupils who were judged to be closest to this ideal were likely to come from middle class backgrounds. Those furthest away from the teachers ‘ideal’ were most likely to come from working class backgrounds (Taylor et al, 2000) As a result those from working class backgrounds were labelled as having a lack of discipline, unmotivated and unlikely to achieve. These labels can have a significant effect on their educational success in the result of a ‘self-fulfilling prophecy’. A self-fulfilling prophecy is a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true. For example if a teacher tells a pupil that they are not very good with English frequently, it is likely the pupil will underachieve in English classes and examinations. (Taylor et al, 2000) Although, labelling theory seems to hold true and have resonance in practical scenarios, it is probably too  simplistic to explain educational inequalities in full. The theory largely implies that individuals have control over their life and ignore structural influences on the individual. Meritocracy holds that all pupils have an equal opportunity to succeed irrespective of background; statistics seem to disprove this notion. The key factors leading to educational inequality seem to be related to economic background. Functionalists argue that schools operate meritocratically, a Marxist would say that this is just an ideology that does not work in practice. The ideology makes people believe that the educational system is fair but really only serves the interests of the ruling class. M.S.H Hickox questions the Marxist view that there is a close correspondence between education and economic developments. For example, compulsory education was introduced after the onset of industrialisation, so for a long time capitalists did not employ a workforce that had been shaped by the ‘hidden curriculum’. (Haralambos and Holborn, 2004) The formal curriculum is not designed to teach the skills needed by employers or create uncritical passive behaviour, which would make workers easier to exploit. Subjects, such as A Level Sociology, do not promote an unthinking student but in actual fact promote critical thinking. However, Marxists argue that educational institutions transmit a dominant ideology which serves the interests of the ruling classes. (Giddens, 2001) Functionalists argue that if students work hard and are able they will achieve. However, the relationship between academic achievement and occupational reward is particularly close. Many students leave university and are unable to find suitable employment and income seems to be only weakly linked to qualifications. (Giddens, 2001) The hidden curriculum is supposed to promote subservience in pupils, this ignores the fact that many teenage pupils have little regard for rules and respect for teachers. Labelling theory may be more appropriate for understanding this type of behaviour. Durkheim assumes that societies share the same values which can be transmitted through the educational system, which is untrue in todayâ€℠¢s multi-cultural society. Many inequalities in education can affect achievement and success, which appear to be related to economics. Functionalists view education as a  meritocracy where all individuals have an equal opportunity to succeed irrespective of social differences. However, Marxists strongly disagree with this and believe that it is almost predetermined before a pupil starts school whether they will achieve or not. Interactionists believe that personal experience of schooling is important for determining success or failure. However, no theory offers a plausible and complete explanation for educational inequality. Personally, I believe that a compromise between social action and Marxist theory should be made to address educational inequality. I am personally not convinced that there is any particular merit to functionalist theory, as it appears to deny issues of inequality. References Durkheim E (2003) Moral Education, Reprint Edition, Dover Publications Inc, LondonGiddens A (2001) Sociology, Fourth Edition, Polity Press, LondonHaralambos and Holborn (2004) Sociology: Themes and Perspectives, Sixth Edition, Harper Collins, LondonKendall D (2005) Society in Our Times: The Essentials, Fifth Edition, Thomson Wadsworth, ChicagoKirby et al (1999) Sociology in Perspective, Heinemann Educational Publishers, LondonTaylor et al (2000) Sociology in Focus, Causeway Press, Bath

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Scientific Method Matching Exercise Resource

Nicole Whaley BIO-220 May 7, 2012 Chris Traasdahl Scientific Method Matching Exercise Resource 1. Observe. A scientist observes that a pond adjacent to an industrial plant has heavier algae growth than ponds farther away (G). I chose this as an example of observation because the sentence explains in detail how the scientist first gathered the idea to for conducting the experiment. 2. Ask a question. A scientist wonders if the waste water emitted from an industrial plant is accelerating the growth of algae in a pond(C).I believed this sentence to be where the scientist asked himself whether or not the industrial plant had any bearing on the accelerated growth. I believe this sentence shows this. 3. Create a hypothesis. A scientist, based on his observation of the pond, believes that if a pond is exposed to the waste of an industrial plant, then the growth of algae will be accelerated (A). This to me is an educated guess. Although the scientist has not tested or proven anything yet, hi s educated guess is clearly stated here in this sentence. . Conduct an experiment. In her laboratory, a scientist pours a vial of waste water, collected from the industrial plant, and adds it to a dish containing pond water. A second dish (the control dish), containing the same pond water, does not receive the waste water sample (B). This sentence gives the reader a hint by stating that the scientist is in her laboratory. It is here where the scientist usually conducts any experiment so it is only right that I would believe this to be the appropriate sentence for this step. . Collect data. After 5 days, the scientist measures the amount of algae present in each dish (D). Here the scientist is about to actually see if his hypothesis was correct. It is here that he will gather the information he needs to either prove or disprove his assumption. 6. Interpret results. After the data is collected, the scientist discovers that the dish containing both the pond water and waste water had mo re than twice the amount of algae than the control dish (F).I choose this sentence or step in the scenario because it is after you gather your data that you are able to make a proven statement about what it is you have discovered in an experiment. 7. Report results. The scientist submits his findings to a scientific journal (E). By sending or submitting his findings to a scientific journal leads me to believe that the scientist has concluded his experiment and are satisfied with his findings. Therefore he is ready to submit results.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Impacts and Contributions of the Trent Guide Term Paper

Impacts and Contributions of the Trent Guide - Term Paper Example This one-time project will remain forever since it has never been done by any other students. It will help to establish a genuine guide for the future changes within the Trent International Program. The other impact it will have is on the future international students. It will offer them a juncture to change the guide according to the real information about the Trent University and Peterborough. The impact of the project will also be on the digital technology since many students will be able to scan the guide information online before downloading it. This is an implication that online businesses such as the cybercafà © business will grow well around Peterborough. The Trent guide is useful because it is not only concerned with certain individuals but the whole society within and outside the Trent University. The Trent guide is responsible for the development of some programs, which are profitable for the international students. During the implementation and the designing processes, t he students do many types of research, as a result, they get a high level of knowledge and experience concerning the development of the project. Other new students who have an interest in developing their own projects will refer to the Trent guide project. The other contribution that this project will offer to new and other continuing students is that they will refer to it whenever they want to discover ways of developing a project.They will also learn how one handles challenges experienced in the process of the implementation and designing of the project.  

Friday, September 27, 2019

What was the Impact of the Holocaust on Postwar Art and Culture Essay

What was the Impact of the Holocaust on Postwar Art and Culture - Essay Example This figure represented two thirds of the total European Jewish population and a third of the world’s total. Causes Germany was forced to sign the humiliating Versailles Treaty, at the end of the First World War, in which the country was forced to cut down on its armed forces, its prewar territory was reduced, and Germans were forced to admit guilt for the war. They were also forced to pay reparations to the allied forces for losses incurred during the war. The country was also forced to adopt a parliamentary governing system, and it is through this system that Adolf Hitler became a Chancellor, or prime minister, in 1932. Soon after, his government started propagating hate campaign against Jews, claiming that they were the source of all German problems and, therefore, needed to be exterminated as a race from the world. This is what led to the Holocaust, a tragedy that peaked during the war and only ended with Germany’s defeat, by the allied forces, in 1945 (AICE). ... Other museums across the world have set aside sections that keep these objects too. Paintings and Pictures Visual representations have also been done through paintings, photography and films. Evidence from the concentration camps indicates that the detainees engaged in the art to express their feelings and sufferings, and to avoid getting bored. Though some of this work was discovered by the Nazis and destroyed claiming it was part of ‘horror propaganda’, and the artists punished severely, however, some of it survived. This includes Josef Nassy’s 200 drawings which he painted while at Bavaria’s Laufen and Tittmoning concentration camps. His pieces of art survived the concentration camps and these help in capturing an eye witness’ account of the dehumanizing nature in which Nazis treated the Jews. ‘No names’ are paintings by Alice Lok Cahana, a Hungarian Holocaust survivor who tells her story as a teenage detainee. Her work is preserved i n the Collection of Modern Religious Art gallery, at the Vatican Museum. Some other artists helped in producing paintings of life at Bergen-Belsen concentration camp months after its liberation and these include Mary Kessell, Leslie Cole, and Sargeant Eric Taylor who was one of the camp's liberators. A lot of these paintings have been done over time including those by contemporary artists and are on display in different museums and art galleries across the globe (Zelizer 8). Photography Photography has also been used extensively to preserve memories of the Holocaust. Among these is the more than 10,000 photos taken secretly by Mendel Grossman while at the death camps. Though he died in the same camps; however, the negatives were used to develop photos

Thursday, September 26, 2019

The technology of ultra thin televisions Research Paper

The technology of ultra thin televisions - Research Paper Example The main reason behind this transition is the fact that all of the competing electronics companies are struggling to provide the best HD experience to their customers, and this competitiveness has led to a great deal of innovation. LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) TV's have set the standard for the technology to evolve and conform to consumer tastes. Most television manufacturers only concentrate on this technology and strive to make it even better. LED (Light Emitting Diode) TV's are gaining popularity over the conventional CCFL (Cold Cathode Fluorescent Light) LCD's. The LED-LCD Technology uses LED lights to enhance picture quality such as brightness and contrast, despite keeping the TV extremely thin, i.e. less than 0.9 inches (Bartels). Background Information The Television we have in our homes today has come a long way. From a gigantic box to a delicate wall-hanging devise, the struggle has been long and laborious. A chronological study of how TVs have evolved provides us with a bet ter understanding of the evolution of their technology2. At the beginning of TV technology, a debate lingered over whether electronic television systems worked better than mechanical systems. However, with research it was decided that electronic TV provided better results than mechanic. Electronic television is based on the technology of the cathode ray tube, which is the picture tube that is found in modern TV sets. German scientist Karl Braun was the one who invented the cathode ray tube oscilloscope in 1897 (Bellis). The very first prototype for plasma display TV was invented in 1964 by Donald Blitzer, Gene Slottow, and Robert Wilson. In 1996 the world was introduced for the first time to the Light Emitting Polymer devices and in 1997 a flexible flat panel display was also created. In October 2007 Sony Electronics launched the XEL-1, the first ever OLED TV (11inches). Although the prototypes of color flexible displays and ultra thin televisions are demonstrated by several compani es throughout the world, the television of today is still evolving. Applications The most remarkable benefit of a flat screen set is its lightness and portability. A flat screen TV is extremely compact and it is convenient to move it anywhere in the house. It gives us a large number of options for placing it at around as it is light enough to be mounted from the ceiling, or to be hung on a wall. The flat-screen ultra thin televisions also come in a wide variety of sizes. The biggest size mostly manufactured for the set is 84 inches. Other, more common models go from 20 up to 42 inches, and within this range the most popular sizes are the 26-, 32- and 42-inch sets. The smallest plasma set on the market is 42 inches. A very important benefit of thin LCD screens is that they can serve as monitors for personal computers, aside from functioning as a TV at home. Plasma sets also offer the best quality in video. They are great for watching high definition programming, offering incredible d etail and color. Both types of sets have a lifespan of at least 30,000 hours, which equals about 15 years.3 Plasma sets are consistent when it comes to video display, while LCDs are a bit unreliable in terms of transmitting satellite and cable programming. Another very important be

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Criminal Law Writing Task Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Criminal Law Writing Task - Essay Example ly concerned with crimes that are committed against public authority and it often goes against the interests of the public at large the reason why the state would need to persecute such perpetrators of criminal offences. Many countries do have statutory regulations that allow the courts to try and sentence criminals upon conviction. In this regard, theft or property, felony as well as treason for instance fall under criminal law as well as other cases that endanger human life and the state as a whole. It can be noted that in every nation, the criminal law is specifically designed to deter the criminals from committing crimes that disrupt public order and security. A critical analysis of the case study shows that John violates the public interest in mainly two ways that can be categorised as criminal activities. Driving without a valid licence is a criminal offence as it endangers the lives of the general public and he deliberately steals from unsuspecting people. In many countries if not all, theft is classified as a criminal law. Theft can be loosely referred to as taking without permission or stealing other people’s property. Theft comes in many different forms that include fraud, larceny, and embezzlement among other different forms. This essay seeks to critically analyse some of the offences committed by John and their magnitude to warranty arrest and ultimately sentencing upon conviction. First and fore most, John fraudulently obtains his public service vehicle (PSV) licence after he failed the test. Fraud is a criminal case by any standard especially with the intent of misrepresenting yourself to gain unfair advantage of getting a job without proper requirements. Obtaining a fake licence by hook and crook is pure violation of the law which can not be taken lightly under whatever circumstance. Having failed the test, he decides to proceed and obtain a fake driver’s licence with full knowledge of the likely consequences hence it can be said that he is

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Philosophy ethical theory Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Philosophy ethical theory - Essay Example But recently, there has been a renewal of the interest in virtue ethics to the point where today it is one of the main ways that are employed in dealing with substantive philosophical ethics. This new interest has been generated from the dissatisfaction with the manner in which moral philosophy has been done in the contemporary time and particularly recently. This is because the contemporary and modern philosophy has insisted on moral responsibility and moral law while it ignored the sources of morality in the inner life and the character of the individual (Crisp & Slote, 1997). As is the case in many other areas in philosophy, precise definitions are hard to arrive at but the main contrast comes in the forms of ethics that are based on moral laws, rules and principles. In the case of virtue ethics, the focus is mainly on individual that is supposed to have these virtues and the inner traits that the individual possesses, their dispositions and motive that make the person eligible to be virtuous. Philosophers in the contemporary world perceive moral life as a matter of connecting properly to moral rules as opposed to the traditional virtue ethics where the understanding of moral or ethical life generally needs requires the understanding of what it is to be a virtuous person, or what it entails to have a particular virtue. This is considered to be an inner trait or a disposition that is associated with the individual (Crisp & Slote, 1997). There is a widespread conviction that is associated with virtue ethics that it does dictate what to do. In some instances, this conviction is seen only in the expressed theory that virtue ethics in being agent-centered rather than art-centered is more direct at â€Å"being† rather â€Å"doing†, with good and bad character rather than right and wrong action. Taking this supposition, virtue ethics doesn’t therefore come out as a normative opponent of practical and deontological morals. In

Monday, September 23, 2019

Project Managment for Boeing 787 Dreamliner Essay

Project Managment for Boeing 787 Dreamliner - Essay Example The project life cycle is used to further refine the project before arriving at a general conclusion. Project managers have to make trade-offs among the scope, time and cost considerations in a bid to establish project priorities (Westland 2007, p. 56). The trade-offs are more serious in case of momentous project such as the Boeing 787 Dreamliner, already experiencing multiple delays and millions of pounds lost in fines. One of the best tools to help project managers at any level is the Project Matrix technique, through which the manager makes trade-offs based on constraining, enhancing or accepting the main project criteria; time, cost and performance (Frame 2003, p. 87). For the case of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner project, each element will be discussed before arriving at an appropriate Project Matrix. The project manager must categorically discuss with the relevant stakeholders for each criterion before deciding on the trade-offs. The first criterion under discussion in the Boeing 787 Dreamliner project is time. Time is a major determinant of project success due to a number of reasons. First, the establishment of SMART Boeing 787 Dreamliner project objectives involves proper considerations on timelines; secondly, the work break-down structure of projects deeply embeds time considerations; lastly, the traditional relationship between time and cost translates to a situation where delaying the project increases the cost of the project. Further delaying the project attracts unbudgeted-for fines which further add to the Boeing 787 Dreamliner project cost. However, the project manager is in a position to control the time considerations through managing procurements, revolutionising the work break-down structure to tighten time use and managing risks. Thus, the time consideration becomes a priority for enhancement. The performance criterion is of absolute

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Multimedia System Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Multimedia System - Research Paper Example So we can say that multimedia is exhibition of some form of information in any format. This can also be taken as the presenting information by means of numerous dissimilar techniques to obtain across those ideas (Multimedia Product development, 2009). Some years ago, purchasing a multimedia product for a computer was a pretty complex task, on the other hand for the reason that of the marvelous enlargement of multimedia applications, the majority of computers that we purchase nowadays are previously intended to execute and run multimedia products and applications. If we want to develop a multimedia sample or applications then we need a more powerful computer system. If we do not have such machine then its productivity will be lost, but now the majority of people having more powerful machines as compared to 10 years ago computers (Henke et al, 2000). The practice of development of a multimodal product encompasses a comprehensive planning for the over development process. In this circumstances we have to pay more attention regarding the way and tools we have, and which we adopt for the development of the system (Multimedia Product development, 2009). This research is aimed at discussing this development process and its main aspects. This section will discuss about the main aspect of multimedia planning process and events. Successfully developing as well as delivering a multimedia product or applications necessitates an additional powerful PC, very good designing qualities, effective programming knowledge and most important a creative mind. Though, if formation of high-end multimedia product is our objective, then we definitely need to consider positive circumstance that has been recognized particularly for multimedia product development (Henke et al, 2000). Storyboard is the basic step in every type of multimedia product development. In this first phase of the multimedia product development we build up and design a

Saturday, September 21, 2019

The Awakening Essay Example for Free

The Awakening Essay Kate Chopin wrote for a reason and with a sense of passion and desire. She lived the way she wanted to and wrote what she felt, thought, and wanted to say. Kate wrote for many years and her popularity was extreme until critical disapproval of her novel, The Awakening, a story that portrayed women’s desires of independence and control of their own sexuality. Most men condemned this story, while women applauded her for it. Kate wrote with a sense of realism and naturalism and she created a voice that is unique and unmatched. The voice gave a view of the female role in society and contributed to the beginning of the later feminist movements. In 1915, Fred Lewis Pattee wrote, some of Chopins work is equal to the best that has been produced in France or even in America. She displayed what may be described as a native aptitude for narration amounting almost to genius (qtd. in Amazon. com â€Å"About the Author†). Kate Chopin was a 19th century American author who cared about women and their rights. She was a bold writer who had a huge impact on how the world should treat women. On February 8, 1851, Katherine O’Flaherty was born in St. Louis, Missouri. Kate was born to the parents of Thomas O’Flaherty and Eliza Faris. Her father was a wealthy Irish immigrant and a successful businessman. Sadly, Kate’s father died in a railway accident when she was only four years old. Kate’s childhood was influenced mostly by her mother and great-grandmother. Kate spent much time with her family’s Creole and mulatto slaves, becoming familiar with their dialects. She attended Sacred Heart convent where she was a very poor student, but an avid reader. At the age of eleven Kate’s great-grandmother as well as her half-brother died. These two deaths caused Kate to seclude herself in the family attic to study more books (Authors and Artists par. 5). Kate’s schooling was irregular and she herself attributed her education more to her reading, than to the education she received at the Sacred Heart convent. At the age of seventeen she graduated with a passion for literature and storytelling. She spent two years as a belle in St. Louis society becoming aware of feminist social issues (World Biography par. 2). â€Å"She began to smoke cigarettes and wrote a feminist fable, ‘Emancipation. She read and admired the works of Jane Austen, the Bronte sisters, George Eliot, and George Sand† (qtd, in Bloom 10). Kate preferred to spend time alone reading instead of attending socials all night. Although Kate spent a lot of time reading by herself, it did not stop her from writing what she saw in the world around her. In June 1870, Kate married a cotton trader and Creole named Oscar Chopin. Together they moved to New Orleans. While Oscar worked as a cotton factor and began handling sales, finances, and supplies for other plantation owners, Kate lived her care-free life (Authors and Artists par.7). Kate began to write about what she saw. She adopted two strange habits for women; smoking cigarettes and walking unaccompanied through the city. Kate took on the demanding social and domestic schedule of a Southern aristocrat. These memories would later serve as material for her short stories (World Biography par. 2). In 1880 Kate and her family were forced to moves to her father-in-law’s home in Cloutierville, Louisiana’s Red River bayou region. Here they became active members of the Creole community. Sadly in 1883 Oscar died of swamp fever, forcing Kate to take over. Kate came in contact with every part of the community, including the French-Acadian, Creole, and mulatto croppers who worked the plantation. These impressions later influenced her fiction (World Biography par. 2). After Oscar’s death Kate found herself stuck having to handle five children while $12,000 dollars in debt. Kate managed to run the family business until 1884 when she moved back to St. Louis. When she returned home she began writing about her life in Louisiana and this is when her career began. Kate settled in with her mother and began to write. Within a year Kate’s mother died and Kate was left in a state of depression. Following the deaths of Oscar and Kate’s mother, Kate was consulted by a doctor. He encouraged Kate to write (World Biography par. 3). Many of Kate’s friends also found her letters entertaining and encouraged her to write short stories. She began to write about the Louisiana past. After being rejected many times Kate got her short stories published in the most popular American periodicals, including America, Vogue, and the Atlantic (World Biography par. 3). Kate’s reputation grew because of her early success with Bayou Folk and A Night in Acadie. Her first novel, At Fault, was published in 1890 in her home city. Nine years later Kate’s first poem, â€Å"If it Might Be,† was published. Kate wrote over one hundred short stories during the 1890s (Bloom 10). Kate was very successful, but she became known only as a local color writer and her qualities were overlooked. This did not stop Kate from writing. Kate wrote only one or two days each week and even then she only wrote in her living room while her children played. Kate also had a salon in St. Louis where she hosted St. Louis celebrities (Authors and Artists par. 15). This is where Kate wrote many articles, short stories and periodicals, including Atlantic Monthly, Criterion, Harper’s Young People, St. Louis Dispatch, and Vogue (Feminist Writers par. 1). Kate’s first collection reflects her skills as a local colorist and center on the loves of the Creoles and Acadians in her Parish. Many of Kate’s stories addressed many themes, including women’s emancipation and marital discord (Authors and Artists par 10). â€Å"Considered one of the foremost Southern regionalist writers, Kate Chopin’s fiction details the culture in which she lived during her childhood and marriage† (qtd. in Feminist Writers par. 2). Kate published her final novel, The Awakening, in 1899. The Awakening is known as her masterpiece and is a seminal work in American feminist fiction. Fiction was Kate’s greatest strength (Authors and Artists par 18). In her stories of Bayou Folk, A Night in Acadie, and The Awakening Kate writes about the sexual, racial, and moral background of polite southern Louisiana life (Feminist Writers par 2). The Awakening received many negative reviews because of the way Kate portrayed women and their desires. With the rejection of A Vocation and a Voice and the harsh reviews of The Awakening Kate’s career slowly began to end. Kate slowly began to abandon her career. After the publication of The Awakening Kate was rejected from certain social circles in St. Louis. She was also later rejected to getting other books published and the criticism caused her writing to slow down (Feminist Writers par. 6). In 1904 Kate became very ill; however, she was still interested in the World’s Fair in St. Louis. After a day of exhaustion Kate collapsed with a cerebral hemorrhage. Two days later, on August 22, 1904, Kate sadly passed away (Authors and Artists par. 23). Today Kate is known through her interpretations of the Creoles in her collections Bayou Folk and A Night in Acadie, and her second novel, The Awakening (American Biography par. 2). It took half a century for people to grasp what Kate Chopin had accomplished with her work. Kate was once just considered an author of local-color fiction. Today she is recognized for her examination of sexuality, individual freedom and the consequences of action (Authors and Artists par.10). Kate was familiar with the newest developments in science and literature, and her aim was to describe man’s â€Å"immutable impulses. † Kate wrote with balance and maturity, showing that women should have the same rights as men. Today Kate’s stories have become favored subjects among women critics. Kate’s work also has been recognized by critics in countries ranging from France to Japan (Authors and Artists par. 25). Because of The Awakening Kate abandoned writing because she faced critical abuse. Today this novel has grown to be respected and recognized as a masterpiece. Today, The Awakening has become required reading for any student studying the history of women’s cultural oppression (Feminist Writers par. 2). Many authors today have helped show that Kate was a significant figure in American fiction, particularly feminist literature (Authors and Artists par. 2). Kate Chopin is known as one of the most important women in 19th century American fiction. Kate grew up in a world where women were seen as very little importance. She wrote to change that. Kate wrote with passion and a sense of realism. She proved to the world around her that women were just as equal to men. Conclusively, Kate Chopin is known to be the first feminist writer and a woman ahead of her time. Even though during her time she was looked down upon for the things she wrote, she is celebrated and acclaimed by people around the world today. Kates writings provided her with the means to live how she wanted-both mentally and physically-rather than play the role society expected of her. Kate Chopin proved to women they had a right to express themselves however they wanted to. This is why Kate is known today as one of the most important women in 19th century American fiction.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Individual Differences and Emotion Recognition Scores

Individual Differences and Emotion Recognition Scores ABSTRACT This study investigates the extent to which individual differences such as age, gender and levels of depression affect emotion recognition. Participants were tested by being shown pictures of different facial emotions – happiness, surprise, sadness, anger, disgust and fear. Their scores were then compared against the 3 factors. The findings show significant evidence for gender and levels of depression differences, but no significant negative correlation was found for age. The findings were also supported by previous studies, except for age. The results show that the hypothesis can only be partially supported. INTRODUCTION Terracciano, Merritt, Zonderman, and Evans (2003) study tested 2 groups – African American and Caucasian of 106 and 46 participants respectively. The African American sample consisted of 51 males and 55 females and had low- socioeconomic status with an mean of 12 years of education. The Caucasian sample consisted of 24 males and 22 females with higher socioeconomic status, and an mean of 16 years of education. Two types of perception of affect task (PAT) were used – face and sentence subtask (Lane et al., 1996). The results showed that the African American group fared poorer than the Caucasian group on both the faces and sentence task. Also when education was controlled for, the differences in scores remained. The Caucasian group had significantly higher results for females over males in the face task, and also higher scores in the sentence task. However, no gender difference was found in the African American group. These results suggest that there could be also be a cu ltural variance in emotion recognition. Calder et al. (2003) study examined 48 participants, half were between 18 to 30 years old and the rest were between 58 and 70 years old. Within each age group, genders were split evenly. Also, IQ was matched between groups. There were shown a total of 60 photographs taken from the picture of facial affect series (Ekman and Friesen, 1976). Participants were shown these pictures in a random order and asked to choose the best expression label for the picture, with no time limit. Their results showed there was a significant link between emotion and age group. They also found that the older participants were significantly better at recognizing disgust. Further experiments showed that there was a clear negative relationship between recognition of facial expression and increasing age. Also, it again confirmed previous results that recognizing disgust improved with age. Comparing results between age groups showed that, there was also no significant relationship between decline in recognition scores of other emotions and age. This suggests that poorer recognition in later age might not be due to general cognitive impairment. The aim of this experiment is to determine whether individual differences like age, gender and depression levels could affect emotion recognition abilities. In the last measure –depression levels, this experiment will compare differences in scores against different facial expressions. For example, Gollan, Pane, McCloskey and Cocarro (2008) investigated patients with major depression and healthy patients, 37 and 29 participants respectively. Gender was split evenly in both groups. They measured their responses for emotion recognition task using the Picture of facial Affect (Ekman and Friesen, 1976). Their results showed that depressed patients tend to recognize neutral faces as sad faces as compared to the healthy group. However, the healthy group tend to identify neutral faces as happy faces. My hypothesis is that the ability to recognize emotions is affected by individual differences, like gender, age and levels of depression. RESULTS In this experiment, we were interested in the overall effect of gender on emotion recognition. There was one independent variable which was gender, and this was an independent measures design. The dependent variable is the sum of recognition scores, a higher score indicated better accuracy of identification. An Independent samples t-test was used. The Levene’s test of homogeneity was significant F (38, 29.01) =12.257, p=0.001. This means that the assumption of homogeneity of variance is violated. The Mann-Whitney U Test showed that there was a difference between male and female scores in recognising emotions. The mean rank of males and females was 13.75 and 27.25 respectively, z=-3.665, p Figure 1: Bar graph showing the difference in mean recognitions scores by gender. In this experiment we were interested in the relationship between age and overall emotion recognition scores. There were two variables, which was age and sum of recognition scores. A higher score indicated better accuracy of identification of emotion. The Pearson’s correlational test was used, because we want to find the relationship between two variables. The correlational test showed that there is no significant negative relationship between the two variables, r=-0.184, n= , p=0.256. Two- tailed test. Figure 2: scatterplot showing no correlation between age and sum of recognition scores. In the last experiment we were interested in the effect of level of depression on emotion recognition scores. There was one independent variable- level of depression, and 3 levels normal, mildly depressed, highly depressed by splitting the depression scores. Scores are split by 0- 9, 10-21, 22-36 respectively. The dependent variable was emotion recognition scores. A higher score indicates a better accuracy of emotion recognition. A one- way independent measures ANOVA was used. It is predicted that there would be differences between level of depression and recognition scores. Levene’s test of homogeneity was significant F (2, 37) =11.67, p A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to determine the differences between levels of depression and ability of emotion recognition for different facial expressions. A non-significant box’s M test, p = 0.001 indicated homogeneity of covariance matrices of the dependent variable across the levels of depression. At alpha level of 0.05, Wilk’s test was significant, p =0.022. This means that there are significant differences between levels of depression on the ability to recognize emotions. The Levene’s test of homogeneity was only significant for scores of expression of anger, disgust and happiness (p =0.007, 0.002 and Thus, the findings show that there is significant difference between levels of depression and emotion recognition. Also, there is significant difference between the levels of depression and accuracy of disgusted expression recognition scores. Figure 3: Mean total sum of recognition scores for the groups, where 0 represents normal, 1 represents mild and 2 represents high level of depression. DISCUSSION This study has found evidence that suggests individual differences, for example gender and levels of depression affects emotion recognition. However, there were no significant correlations for age. The findings from the first experiment suggest that there was significant difference in performance between genders. It suggests that females were more accurate overall at identifying emotions compared to males. It is consistent with our prediction that individual differences have an effect on emotion recognition. Our findings of females with significant higher mean scores also support Terracciano et al. (2003) study that had similar results within the Caucasian group. In the second experiment, the results suggest that there is no negative relationship between age and emotion recognition scores. These findings are not consistent with our predictions that individual differences will affect ability for emotion recognition. However, our findings also support the study of Calder et al. (2003) that also had no significant correlation between age and emotion recognition. This could suggest that emotion recognition is not a dependent variable of age. Finally, in the last experiment the findings support our hypothesis that individual differences affect emotion recognition. The findings were similar to those of Gollan et al. (2008) to a certain extent. Gollan et al. (2008) found that depressed participants had a negative processing bias for facial expressions. However, evidence in our study suggests that highly depressed participants were only significantly better in accurately recognizing disgusted expressions. Thus, from the evidence we can see that our hypothesis is only partially supported. Furthermore, a correlational test only confirms a relationship exists, it does not show a definite cause and effect. Also, the number of highly depressed participants is not equal in proportion to the whole sample. It also has a small sample size and this could result in sampling error, thus making our results unreliable. This could explain lack of other differences found between other expression scores and levels of depression. Future research should also explore cultural differences between emotion recognition. The study by Terracciano et al. (2003) found differences in performance between African American and the Caucasian group. Although one possible reason could be, that the differences in results is due to better environmental factors in the Caucasian group. Further experiments have to be carried out to determine if there was a cultural effect on emotion recognition, or if it was due to other variables. Also, another study by Matsumoto (1989) examined 15 cultures and compared t heir scores against 4 factors – Power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism and masculinity. All four factors vary differently between cultures. By comparing their correlation we can determine if there is a culture effect on emotion recognition. Matsumoto (1989) found that there were significant negative correlations between power distance and intensity ratings of negative emotions. Also, a positive correlation between individualism and intensity ratings of anger and fear, but no significant correlation for uncertainty avoidance was found. Although Matsumoto (1989) did not find full support for his hypothesis, it is still useful to explore this area of study. Examining cultural differences in emotion recognition is useful as it can be applied to real life uses in our global environment. The experiment has shown that this hypothesis has not been fully supported. Thus, we cannot conclude that there is a definite effect of individual differences on emotion recognition. REFERENCES American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders(4th ed). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. Caldera, A.J., Keanea, J., Manlya, T., Sprengelmeyerb, R., Scott, S., Nimmo-Smitha, I. Young, A.W. (2003). Facial expression recognition across the adult life span, Neuropsychologia, 41, 195–202. Ekman, P. Friesen, W.V. (1976). Pictures of Facial Affect. Palo Alto CA:Consulting Psychologists Press. Gollan, J.K., Pane, H.T., McCloskey, M.S. Coccaro, E.F. (2008) Identifying differences in biased affective information processing in major depression.Psychiatry Res, 159,18–24. Hamilton, M. (1967) Development of a rating scale for primary depressive illness. Br J Soc Clin Psychol,6, 278-296. Lane, R.D., Sechrest, L., Reidel, R., Weldon, V., Kaszniak, A. Schwartz, G.E. (1996). Impaired Verbal and Nonverbal Emotion Recognition in Alexithymia, Psychosomatic Medicine, 58, 203-210. Matsumoto, D. (1989). Cultural influences on the perception of emotion. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 20, 92–105. Terracciano, A., Merritt, M., Zonderman, A.B., Evans, M.K. (2003). Personality Traits and Sex Differences in Emotion Recognition among African Americans and Caucasians. Annals New York Academy of Sciences, 1000, 309–312.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

To Kill a Mockingbird - The Powerful Character of Atticus Finch Essay

To Kill a Mockingbird - The Powerful Character of Atticus Finch In the beginning epigraph of To Kill a Mocking Bird, Harper Lee quotes a statement made by Charles Lamb: "Lawyers, I suppose, were children once." As told through the eyes of the rambunctious elementary school child, Scout Finch, we see not only how she and her brother's lives are affected by their community, also how they develop and mature under the watch of their father, lawyer Atticus Finch. As a wise role model to his town of Maycomb as well as his children, Atticus Finch becomes a prominently admirable character. As a father, lawyer, friend, and foe, Atticus Finch proves himself to be an honest, selfless, and courageous human being. Throughout many of the books main events, it is always clear that Atticus Finch holds true to his morals and beliefs despite all obstacles. After returning from reading to Mrs. Dubose, a morphine addict, with her brother, Jem, Scout asks her father, "Atticus, what exactly is a nigger-lover?" Having heard the term used many times referring to her father it is easy t...

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

The Odyssey Essay -- Homer, Odyssey Essays

Q1. What are the characteristics of a hero in Homer's poems? What attributes are valued? The Homeric epics describe a race of heroic men: these men are more powerful than ordinary men, and yet, they are not quite as glorious as gods. The heroes are characterized by their strength, warfare skill, intelligence, moral character, and favor of the gods. The Homeric heroes are strong and skillful warriors. Achilles is noted for being the greatest Greek warrior. He is known as â€Å"the great runner† (109). He is fast, strong, and skilled with his spear. When Achilles confronts Hector, King Priam implores Hector to flee. He tells Hector that he â€Å"can’t face Achilles† for â€Å"he’s too much† (174). As Achilles closes in on Hector, he looks like the â€Å"God of War himself† (177). Brave Hector, the greatest of the Trojan wars, loses his nerve and flees in terror. Achilles is a brave warrior; he is not afraid of anything. He charges against the Trojan army single-handedly. He routs the Trojans, killing every Trojan in his path. When he refuses to fight due to his feud with Agamemnon, the Greeks are unable to stand without him. His very presence brings courage to the Greeks and sends fear to the Trojans. Physical strength is not the only thing that is valued. Odysseus is the hero who demonstrates the wit and intelligence can sometimes overpower brute force. Odysseus is introduced as â€Å"the man of twists and turns† (207). His cunning and crafty skills are mentioned numerous times in the poem. The best display of Odysseus’ cunningness is his plan of escape from the Cyclops’ cave. Odysseus knows that he cannot merely kill the Cyclops in his sleep; none of them are strong enough to roll back the immense stone. So, he devises a clever plan, calling himsel... ...shows himself to be the worst of the suitors, though he may be the handsomest. The other are horrified to see how Antinous treats the beggar. They know that â€Å"the gods do take on the look of strangers† (414). They know that Antinous’ â€Å"fate is sealed† (414). Antinous lacks any sense of morality and hospitality which a civilized Greek should display. The Odyssey illustrates the importance of hospitality. It shows examples of people who manifest hospitality and are blessed by it or who become instruments of blessing others. It also shows by contrast, guests who take scorn their host’s hospitality and hosts who are inhospitable to their guests. Those who manifest xenia, whether host or guest, are the civilized and moral characters. Those who violate the rules of xenia are seen as savage and ill-bred; they eventually incur judgment for failing in their religious duty.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Deforestation :: Nature Wildlife Essays

â€Å"The burning of Central America† is the first of these articles and appears in Essentials of World Regional Geography, the textbook of Geography 240. This article was originally published in a magazine. This is the only article with a picture included. The picture is of the Brazilian rain forest burning and hacked to splinters after a slash and burn operation. The article tries to stay in a neutral scientific stance , however it is obvious that the article is against deforestation. The second article, â€Å"The Amazon River Lowland† is also out of the same geography book. It was primarily written to give the reader an idea of the different kinds of land in Brazil. It is for government intervention to save the forest. The third is a periodical, â€Å"Logging Damage during planned and unplanned logging operations in eastern Amazon.† Its appears in the June 1996 encyclopedia of Forest Ecology and Management. This periodical takes a more realisti c approach to deforestation. This article speaks as if it will happen no matter what but it focuses on what is mutually beneficial to both humans and the environment. The fourth article also appears in the same set of encyclopedias but is in the March 1997 volume. It is entitled, â€Å"Brazilian Amazonian caboclo agriculture: effect of fallow period on maize yield.† This periodical is an experiment to show which is better for growing corn after deforestation has occurred, either burning the forest or temporarily allowing it to grow back. This article made me think about the pros of deforestation and how burning could help the environment. It is presented scientifically with charts, maps, and graphs and it attempts to stay neutral but in the end it favors the fallow, or rest, period over burning. The fifth article is from the Internet and is named, â€Å"The Social Dynamics of Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: An Overview.† Only the economics portion of thi s lengthy report was analyzed because of the overwhelming length of the paper and irrelevance to this paper’s topic. This article is against deforestation and lists only the negative economic factors of deforestation. The last article, â€Å"World Bank Plans Increased Support for Timber Harvesting† is also posted on the Internet. It is written by the Environmental Defense Fund and doesn’t attack deforestation but rather the World Bank which is helping it to occur.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Fashion and Social Media Essay

Due to the changes in technology British luxury brand Burberry has changed its global product and marketing strategy. Burberry is using social media to reposition and better market its product. For small fashion companies like 3. 1 Phillip Lim the use of social media to generate business internationally can be harmful to its reputation. I will discuss the pros and cons each company could face while using social media to generate business internationally. Burberry was founded in 1856 by Thomas Burberry, who opened his first store in Basingstoke, Hampshire, England. By 1870 the business had established itself by focusing on the developing of outdoor attire. Burberry is most famous for its trench coat. The company has branded stores and franchises around the world, and also sells through concessions in third-party stores. Queen Elizabeth II and The Prince of Wales have granted the company Royal Warrants. Royal warrants give companies the right to advertise the goods and services that they provide to the royal family. According to Business Weekly, Burberry is one of the most valuable brands in the world. For Burberry to maintain its presents in the fashion industry they have to be the forerunner when it comes to marketing. Today fashion designers are currently working on their spring collection for 2013. Technology has changed the way the fashion industry markets products. A collection of clothing that is presented by a company is created two years before it hits stores. Before a collection makes it to fashion week, samples of the designs are made and approved by the staff of the designer. A company would then showcase the designer’s collection at small private venues for a critique from potential buyers. Finally, The Fashion Company presents its collection to the world at fashion week. The response from the fashion show determines where that product will be placed, the price point and its exclusiveness. The problem with this way of marketing is forecasting. Fashion week occurs in New York, Milan, Paris and London. If you do not have a ticket to the fashion shows in any of these countries you can forget about a sneak peek at the â€Å"the future fashion†. Those who attend fashion week determine the look of the â€Å"masses†. Based on the response from the audience and press’s feedback fashion companies would have to predict how many units of each product would be produced. This number is determined one year before the product is placed on shelves. The decision of how many units of a product a company should make is vital to a fashion company. The last thing any company would want is to have inventory from a previous year on hand. Today, Burberry has come up with the perfect solution through social media. During Burberry’s Spring/Summer 2012 Fashion Show that aired September 19, 2011, Burberry also launched their first â€Å"Tweetwalk. The company premiered every look on Twitter moments before the models hit the runway. This action created a huge amount of interest on Twitter, both â€Å"#Burberry† and â€Å"Christopher Bailey† (Chief Creative Officer) trended worldwide. Conversations about the brand peaked shortly after the show began hitting number two on the global trending charts and breaking Burberry’s personal mentions-per-minute record (Indvik 2011). Instead of dictating the trends, brands are throwing the ball into the consumer’s court. Burberry now participates in crowd-sourcing. Crow-sourcing allows your audience to decide on your product through the use of social media, forums, and high-tech web customizing programs. This action illuminates the prediction of the amounts of units to produce as a company. Broadcasting a runway show through Twitter gives instant feedback to Burberry about what their customers want. Not only are they finding out what their customers want and providing that need, they are allowing their customer the opportunity to dictate the future of fashion with the option of customizing the products that are produced. The customers can begin placing orders during the fashion show. Earlier this year, for a show in Beijing, Burberry introduced a 3D holographic runway. Christopher Bailey states, â€Å"Burberry is now as much a media-content company as we are a design company. † Baily believes that the online experience Burberry has developed on its own behalf doesn’t detract from or diminish the role of traditional media, but provides another channel for consumers to experience the brand. He believes a brand is not a product, it’s and experience as well, and experiences need to come from the center of a community. Burberry uses all those platforms to communicate to all of their different communities around the world about what they are doing (Indvik 2011). Burberry believes that digital communication and technology are part of the way everybody lives. Burberry is a 155-year-old company with a very young team, for any company to last that long they would have to accept and adapt to the changes in technology. For small companies like 3. 1 Phillip Lim the use of social media to generate business internationally can be harmful to its reputation. . 1 Phillip Lim was a global company from day one. The first collection for fall 2005 womenswear, was sold in 20 countries. Within six months, sales reached $2. 8 million. Today, there are 60 full-time employees and retail flagships in New York, Los Angeles, Tokyo, Seoul, and Singapore. A Hong Kong store is in the works. His New York headquarters has outgrown its Garment District digs and will move, in November, to a 25,000 square foot SoHo loft (Chang 2011). Lim states, â€Å"I want my work to speak for me. He is elusive, shy and distant as a person and he wants his brand to represent him. He isn’t caught up in the red carpets, paparazzi or social media. His main focuses are his designs and presentations for fashion shows. The company has a profile on Facebook that only post upcoming events and a brief history of the company. There aren’t any wall posts or comments on designs from consumers. The page isn’t maintained or up dated daily with posts. Burberry posts something new every week, you can shop from their page and they allow they’re friends to comment. . 1 Phillip Lim is still new to the fashion Industry compared to Burberry. 3. 1 Phillip Lim can’t afford negative press. Any negative press can affect their position in the market. The company is still growing and they’re not where they want to be. Indulging in social media sites like Facebook and Twitter isn’t the company’s focus. Whereas, Burberry has the leverage to do what they want because of the relationships they built with their customers. If Burberry had negative press it would not outweigh the positive.

Glamorous Life of Princess Diana

Cindy GarciaGarcia 1 Carl Mason 42. 103. 273 18 May 2011 The â€Å"Glamorous† Life of Princess Diana For my biography final paper, I chose to write about Princess Diana. She is someone who stood out to me and someone who accomplished so much in such a short life. She displayed genuine care to the public, the children, the injured, and the handicapped. Princess Diana is the princess of Wales, yet we hear so much about her here in America because she is of great importance. She stood out to me mostly because she is a princess who displays great poise, decorum, and perfection but there was so much chaos and imperfection during her short life.Nobody is perfect, especially the Princess of Wales. â€Å"Being a princess isn't all it's cracked up to be,† says Princess Diana. Her hectic life and all of her accomplishments is what interested me to write this paper on her. Princess Diana was born as Diana Frances Spencer on July 1, 1961. She was born in Norfolk, England. She was t he second youngest child. She had two elder sisters and a younger brother. Her childhood was simple and pleasant. She grew up around royal families and was associated with them.She had a lot of privileges during her childhood because her father, John Spencer, was a royal equerry for both King George VI and Queen Elizabeth II. Her mother was a daughter of the 4th Baron Fermoy. When Diana’s paternal grandfather died, her father became the eighth Earl Spencer, giving Diana the title of â€Å"Lady. † When Diana’s parents were married in 1954 at the Westminster Abbey, the queen was a chief guest. Her parents’ marriage was a big social event during 1954, but the split up when Diana was only about six years old. They Garcia 2 divorced two years after the split.The split of her parents was something tragic during her childhood. After the split, Diana and her siblings had to go through an intense custody dispute, resulting in her father winning custody over her an d her siblings. Her mother was said to have had an affair and was an unfit mother, which helped her father gain custody. She still, often, visited her mother. Her parents both shortly remarried to other spouses. Diana went to a preparatory school and then a boarding school and excelled in sports and activities such as swimming, music and dancing.Her grades weren’t the greatest in school. She was considered a below-average student, but she still enjoyed school because of her determination, cheeriness, and caring nature. She longed to be a professional ballerina and studied ballet but she grew to be too tall, 5’10’’. When she finished school, she went to work in London. She worked as a nanny, worked in a restaurant, did cleaning jobs, and then worked as a teacher at the Young England kindergarten in Knightsbridge. She had a caring nurture towards deprived children due to the impact the divorce of her parents left on her.She says, â€Å"I think the biggest disease the world suffers from in this day and age is the disease of people feeling unloved. I know that I can give love for a minute, for half an hour, for a day, for a month, but I can give. I am very happy to do that, I want to do that. † By nineteen, Diana became a headline for the national media. Lady Diana’s older sister introduced her to Prince Charles of Wales, The oldest child of British monarch Queen Elizabeth II. He was in his early thirties while Lady Diana was in her late teen years. Their age gap was significant.He was about thirteen years older than her. Because of their age difference, they had little in common but they did both enjoy hiking, traveling, and the outdoors. Prince Charles was always under press speculation, especially when it came to his love life. He was under increasing pressure to get married. In order to gain the approval of his family Garcia 3 and their advisors, any potential bride had to have an aristocratic background, could not hav e been previously married, should be Protestant and, preferably, a virgin. Lady Diana fulfilled all of these qualifications.Prince Charles’ former girlfriend, Camilla Parker Bowles, helped him select Lady Diana as a potential bride. Their romance began in 1980. At this time, the press took a special interest in Lady Diana. They followed her everywhere, and she found the attention to be unbearable. Prince Charles and Lady Diana were engaged in February of 1981 and were married on July 29, 1981 in St. Paul’s Cathedral. She was only twenty when she got married. The wedding was broadcast in 74 countries and watched by almost 750 million people worldwide. They had about 3,500 guests attending their weeding.Diana was the first English woman to marry an heir to the throne in over 300 years. By the time they got married, they seemed to be truly in love and their wedding was that of a fairytale. Upon her marriage, Diana became the Princess of Wales and was ranked as the third m ost senior royal woman in the United Kingdom after the Queen and the Queen Mother. But from the beginning, their wedding was not blessed with good fortune. Prior to their wedding, Diana had a feeling that Camilla played a great role in Charles’ life. This led her to great jealousy and pondered if she should even marry him.Less than a year after their wedding, they gave birth to their first son, William, and two years after that to their second son, Henry. She tried to take all of the duties of the children onto her own shoulders. She was a devoted mother. By the time their second son was born, there were great problems in their marriage. Diana became sick of worry about Charles having an affair. She suffered from bulimia and several phases of depression. She even tried to commit suicide several times. She felt early signs Garcia 4 of empty-nest syndrome and felt an emotional void. She was, also, under a lot of pressure.She had many roles to perfect as she wanted to do everyth ing properly. Their sons brought them happiness, but they never seemed to meet eye to eye. When they went to functions, crowds would cheer for Princess Diana and no longer for Prince Charles. He was concerned about all the attention and would criticize her. She made her feel as though she was immature, moody, and couldn’t fulfill her royal duties. They had no common topic for conversation. They never developed common interests. Princess Diana was very much interested in fashion, films, and celebrities. Prince Charles was bored by those topics.He was more interested in history, literature, philosophy, painting, and architecture. Because of all of the attention Princess Diana was getting and her depressive behavior, Prince Charles slowly drifted away from her making her feel lonelier. They became estranged so quickly after their marriage. Despite the way her marriage was going, she tried to keep a positive personal persona and find a place for herself. Her wardrobe was a focus of attention. She charmed everyone and the public loved her presence. She made constant visits to hospitals, nurseries, and schools.A lot of her visits to the hospitals would be unannounced and she would ask the nurses to keep her visit concealed from the media. That showed that she didn’t do all of the visits and charity just for publicity. She did charity work for AIDs, helping to raise AIDS awareness. People of that time were afraid of catching AIDs just by touching someone who had it. Princess Diana would visit AIDs patients and touch them to prove that it was safe and okay and that they deserve compassion. â€Å"HIV does not make people dangerous to know, so you can shake their hands and give them a hug: Heaven knows they need it,† said Princess Diana.Her work for AIDs, also, promoted research and in other ways positively influence the fight against AIDS. She did a lot of Garcia 5 work for those who had leprosy. She tried doing a lot of charity work for the childr en. She was a president or patron of over a hundred charities. She was a patron of the British Deaf Association and had taken the initiative to learn a number of words in sign language. She would practice her skill, master it, and later use it in her work with the children. She played an active role in the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. This campaign won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1997.She won praise for touring land mine fields in a flak jacket and helmet. Her concern over the use of land mines was mostly for those they injured, usually children. The land mines killed or injured more than a million people. A lot of charities would raise large amounts of money with just one appearance by Princess Diana. But she wanted to show the charities that she cares, so she would visit every charity under her patronage at least twice a year, and would talk to the staff personally. When she was around people she gave them hugs and would look them in the eye to show that she cares and tha t she is interested in what you have to say.Helping those in need or just giving them a visit, is what she felt gave her the strength to keep going. It was her everyday motivation. I felt as though that was what made her a good princess. She truthfully cared for the people and wanted to do all she can do to help, even if it was just a hug. As she would say, â€Å"Hugs can do great amounts of good – especially for children. † Her marriage continued to suffer more and more. Prince Charles was fixated on his former girl Camilla and even admitted to having an extra-marital affair.Charles and Diana were separated in 1992 and finally divorced in 1996. Princess Diana was lonely and found comfort from many different men. Her and her sons’ riding instructor, James Hewitt, gave her the attention and charm she longed for. He gave her everything Charles didn’t, stealing away her heart. She was said to be involved with about five other men. Although her separation wit h Garcia 6 Prince Charles impacted her greatly, she still continued to be involved in all of her charity work and everyone still loved her the same as before. She had joint custody with Charles of her two sons.She still failed to neglect her duties as a mother and do all she can for the deprived. She was given about twenty-eight million dollars from her divorce, but she had to give up the title of â€Å"Her Royal Highness. † She was still considered Princess of Wales, especially since her sons are in line for the throne. She did lose a lot of privileges, though, including public money for her work. But it didn’t stop her. She stayed strong in the public eye. In 1997, Princess Diana had a boyfriend by the name of Dodi Al Fayed, a son of a billionaire businessman.He was a heart surgeon. They went on several trips and dates together, and she was very fond of him. The paparazzi were always on their back and they would always try to flee from them. The paparazzi got to a po int where they barely let them breathe. Wherever they would go, which was many places, they would be there waiting for them. On August 31, 1997 they were both killed in a car accident in Paris while fleeing from paparazzi. How it happened and what happened afterwards is a worldwide dispute. Her death shocked the world, and millions of people mourned her death.She died at the age of thirty-five years old. Despite her tragic death, she left a longing legacy and she is still widely known today. From the beginning of her childhood, when her parents were divorced, I automatically felt sympathy for her. I still have my parents together and despite their disputes, I can never picture them separated. I know that it would drastically affect me, so I understand how it greatly affected Princess Diana. She took that negative and turned it into a positive despite her hurt. That was the great thing about her.The divorce of her parents led her to care for children, especially those children in nee d. When her husband was cheating on her and neglecting her, she turned to Garcia 7 charity work and devotion to her sons. I would have never thought that she suffered from depression, bulimia, and several attempts of suicide. She was good at hiding the horrible things in her life and overshadowing it with poise and care for the people. She is definitely a role model and left an impact on the world; not just in England. Her sons continue to do her works and honor her name.I doubt that no other princess or queen lived a hectic and dramatic life as she did. That is what made her so interesting, because above all of that chaos she is one of the most known princesses. She died so young at the age of thirty-six and that makes me think of my sister who is that same age. You still have so much life to live at that age. It just makes the saying truer that the good die young. As someone close to her said, â€Å"She was an exceptional and gifted human being. In good times and bad, she never l ost her capacity to smile and laugh, nor to inspire others with her warmth and kindness.I admired and respected her – for her energy and commitment to others, and especially for her devotion to her two boys. †¦ † Works Cited http://charity. lovetoknow. com/Charity_Work_of_Princess_Diana http://www. famous-women-and-beauty. com/accomplishments-of-princess-diana. html http://www. bbc. co. uk/news/special/politics97/diana/ending4. html http://www. angelfire. com/mi2/llennium3/diana. html http://www. brainyquote. com/quotes/authors/p/princess_diana. html http://www. princess-diana. com/diana/married. htm http://history1900s. about. com/od/1980s/p/princessdiana. htm

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Beatles: Impact on Rock N’ Roll

Impact On Rock N’ Roll Perhaps music can be considered to be one of the most universal things in the world. Notably, music since the 1960s have been greatly shaped by one of the most monumental music figures in the history of the world, The Beatles. Before the Beatles became a prominent figure in music, the most popular genres of music were all forms of jazz. The Beatles alone were the main influence in bringing rock n’ roll in the music spotlight and still continue to do so to this day. They were said to â€Å"be even be even bigger then Jesus† to quote the humorous and often controversial John Lennon.The Beatles were a pop-rock band that originally formed in the 1960s. The band was formed in Liverpool, England, with the four main members John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, and Ringo Starr. The band did not originally have Ringo Starr as its drummer and only added him in 1962 when a conflict arose in the recording studio which called for the dismissing of their pervious drummer. The Beatles came to fame in the UK in November 1962 with their single â€Å"Please Please Me† which reached #2 on the charts there. Three months after the release of their first single the band released their album of the same title.At this time, the band was noticing that their fan base was prominently made of teenaged female fans. As The Beatles became more well-known as the band in the forefront of rock n’ roll, a phrase came about that described them. It was called â€Å"Beatlemania† as the frenzy surrounding the group could only be compared to that of a mania. All the emotions they brought up in many people ran the spectrum. Some would feel extreme love while others found the music very offense and condemned the band. It was this very control that they had over the people that helped boost the band into fame unseen before.Soon after the Beatles’ rise to fame in their own country, their catchy tunes started to spread across the Atlantic Ocean to America. The band’s first US chart-topper was â€Å"I Want to Hold Your Hand. † The song became popular when several popular New York City radio stations began to play it in their evening rotations. Around the same time was when their record company decided that it would be good to start merchandising t he band. It was a huge success. Then in 1964, the Beatles made their first historic visit to America. They were greeted by a mass of fans at the airport. They Beatles had never before experience such a reeting. Along with the mass of fans came the FBI, who closely watched the band. Then they had their first appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show; a popular pop music show of that time. It was all uphill from there. It would be an understatement to say that The Beatles forever changed music. Everything from live performances to recording techniques to style of fashion and more were historically impacted by this band. They would go on to shape and influe nce millions of band to follow in the many years to come. But not only in their musical craftsmanship did they shape the world, but also in the profound message their music held.Te Beatles set records for live performances. They were the first band to have a concert live at a stadium. Their first stadium concert was at Shea Stadium in New York and a total of 55,600 people attended this historical event in pop culture. To add to the substantial impact of this concert, the tickets to the event sold out in a short 17 minutes. This would become the biggest testament to their iconic status. When the Beatles recorded their music, they looked at their songs quite differently than other contemporary recording artists of that time.At that point in time, most singers were only concerned with releasing singles as opposed to full albums with all good songs. The artists would record one or two chart-topping hits and write and record filler songs for the rest of the album. The Beatles on the othe r hand, would rarely include their singles on their full length albums. This required their standard of song to not be filler, but to be of high quality for all of their fans to listen to. This obviously proved to work for them, because the Beatles became the highest selling band in the history of the music industry.Not only did the Beatles impact music with their influence, they also had a huge influence on the popular fashion styles of the time period. Popular fads that arose with the rising popularity of the Beatles were the â€Å"mop-top† haircut, the wearing of their famous collar-less suits, pointed boots, and John Lennon’s famous rounded glasses, which to this day are commonly referred to as, â€Å"John Lennon’s glasses. †   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The themes in the Beatles songs tended to drift towards the distant dream of peace, love, and happiness.This sparked my interest, because I, along with most others in the world would l ove to be surrounded with only these things. When I listen to the Beatles, I feel happy and sing along and lose any worries I may have had before I started listening. They bring of sense calm and joy which has touched millions throughout the years, all the music has been released. I’ve had a passion for music my whole life, and as a teenager in 2008 to be listening to a band that first gained its popularity in the 1960s, this has to show that they were making music that transcends time and barriers.The Beatles music is commonly linked to politics, freedom, and life in the free world. They mentioned an overthrow of communism in some of their songs such as, â€Å"Back In The USSR† and â€Å"Give Peace a Chance. † In doing this, they achieve a level beyond that of mere recording artists. They helped set some groundwork on how a musician can not only impact music but the society in which they live. And how using their influence is a responsibility entrusted upon the m. At the same time, there were riots that were said to be caused by the Beatles’ music.A British rock fan magazine of that time observed that the reason for the violence was that the Beatles â€Å"symbolized the rebellion of youth. † While these riots are basically the opposite of peace, the Beatles wanted it known that their music was meant to inspire revolution in a mostly positive way. War is a common issue in the United States and the rest of the world. The Beatles music represented the war-free world they wanted to see. They hoped that people would see this and understand. They wanted everyone to â€Å"give peace a chance†, especially considering the turbulent times in which they lived.To this day, songs of this influential band are placed in movie soundtracks, covered by popular artists of the day, and used in commercials and advertisements to represent peace-related issues that correlated with their lyrics. Being such a conscience band, controversy had t o follow. In 1966, John Lennon made a comment on Christianity dying and how â€Å"the Beatles were now bigger then Jesus†. This naturally caused massive backlash with the religious conservatives. They became enraged on how John so careless and callously brushed aside their religion.Almost immediately did the public respond; they burned Beatles albums and even bulldozed them. Under intense pressure from the media and of course the record label John issued a public a apology for the comment in a attempt to calm the people. Even as now as of November 2008, the Vatican has forgiven John for the comments he made, chalking it up as merely â€Å"a boast by a young man grappling with sudden fame†. The Beatles and everything that goes with their franchise has incredible popularity and the world would be a different place without their impact.They helped shape an entire generation of followers. They sang of peace, love, and the psychedelics that had to do with their time. But th e Beatles music cannot be contained in that time. It has spurred onward and lived strong in the old and young of today. Without music, the world falls silent; and without the Beatles’ impact, music would not have been changed forever.Bibliography â€Å"List of best-selling music artists. † Wikipedia. . â€Å"The Beatles' influence on popular culture. † Wikipedia. . â€Å"The Beatles. † Way of Life. .

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Burglary Criminal Data Comparison

The year 1929 marked the conception of the Uniform Crime Reporting program (UCR) by the chiefs of police international association to gather for the required reliability and homogeneous crime data for the country. The mission of collection, publication and archiving of this information was rendered to the FBI in 1930. At present, numerous yearly statistical data such as â€Å"Crime in the United States† is published from information provided by approximately 17,000 U. S. law enforcement organizations. UCR Program later formulated the NIBRS-National Incident Based Reporting System as an answer to necessitate the want for in-depth and flexible data.Crime Indicators In a period not less than 30years the United States has had two national crime indicators: the UCR program and the NCVS-National Crime Victimization Survey that gathers a statistics from a nationally balanced representative sample of persons 12 years and above who produce crime estimates independent of the recorded pe rformances of the criminal justice organization. Information from both is normally used jointly to present a more inclusive evaluation of crime in the United States. BurglaryBurglary as defined by the Uniform Crime Reporting program is the illegal entrance into a structure to commit an offense or theft. For an offense to be classified under burglary the use of force to attain entry is not a must. The program has 3 subdivisions for burglary: entry by force, illegal entry without use of force and attempted entry by force. The same applies to the UCR’s classification of structure which includes barn, apartment, and houseboat or house trailer is used as lifelong residence, ship vessel, office, railroad car excluding automobiles.Legal enforcement urgencies in 2005 reported an approximated 2,154,126 burglary crime which represents a 0. 5% rise from the 2004 figures. An assessment of decade trends shows a 1. 8% rise in burglary rates in comparison with the 2001 approximation, and a 14 % decrease from the 1996 figures. Based on the table’s approximation of committed property crimes, burglary accounted for over 21 percent of the total with an average dollar loss of 1,725 USD.Statistics show that of the residential burglary offences that occurred in 2005, a majority 65% took place during daytime, however for nonresidential structures most burglary offences (58 percent) happened in the night- that’s between 1800hours and 0600hours. This information can aid one on drawing trends of burglary offences considering the population, form of life and city structure. New York Metropolitan Area In recent years police survey information show that burglary in the core counties of the New York Metropolitan region’s core counties has been on the decline.And as anticipated the UCR burglary rate was lower than the NCVS total burglary rate, this is attributed to the reluctance of victims to report with only about 61% of burglary incidences recorded by the poli ce. Most occurrences were reported from lower class residential areas with high unemployment rates with the offenders being violent youths mostly. Chicago Metropolitan Area Police and survey estimates agree of decline in burglary incidences since 2000 but still the NCVS rate was higher than the UCR with only 52% of burglary incidences reported over this period.Rates were high in suburban areas of Illinois and generally performed during the day but not violently. Its noted that the offenses were executed mostly by men but some of them usually nonviolent were an act of the female gender. Conclusion It should be noted that most of those local state agencies with the interest to review rates or crime trends, classically draw analysis about felony in their regions basing singly on police statistics. This study has examined the comparison of police figures to victim survey information on burglary and other crimes for the big cities in the country.Gender ,age and class form the most notewo rthy burglary variables compounded with the effects of class i. e. unemployment and location. Unlike men, females have a tendency to start burglary in their later stages in life with lower/ underclass females involved than young women. References Maston, C. and Klaus, P. (2006). Criminal Victimization in the United States, 2005 statistical tables. Violent Crime since 1993, US Department of Justice. http://www. ojp. usdoj. gov/bjs/glance/tables/4meastab. htm. Retrieved on March 13, 2009.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Dutchtown High School Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Dutchtown High School - Research Paper Example From the discussion it is clear that  Dutchtown High School is located in Geismar, which is an unincorporated area in  Ascension Parish,  Louisiana.  This town has two schools, which are often ranked among the best schools in Louisiana. These are the Dutchtown elementary or Middle School and  Dutchtown High School. The school environment is an attractive scene since the Mississippi river runs across the town.  However, the area where the school is located is vulnerable to hurricanes and the tropical systems since the area is lowly elevated, and has a close location to the coast of southeast Louisiana. The town lies 23 feet above the sea level, which is slightly lower than most areas of United States.This paper discusses that  Geismar in turn is located in Louisiana, a state found in the US, which is found in the southern region. The state of Louisiana is among the most extensive and populous states of the United States. This has contributed greatly in shaping the demogr aphics patterns of Ducthtown High School in that the school boasts of a large population of students and teachers. The average ratio of students to teacher is 25:1, which is actually a moderate ratio. The capitals of Louisiana are found in Baton Rouge whereas the largest city in that state is New Orleans. One interesting political fact is that the state of New Orleans is the only state in the US whereby the three are political subdivisions known as parishes.

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Summary on Trap Doors and Trojan Horses Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Summary on Trap Doors and Trojan Horses - Essay Example Fraud can involve as little as $1 to millions of dollars depending on the players involved, as characterized by most fraud activities involving large corporations like banks and investment firms. Trap Doors and Trojan Horses is a book authored by Larry Crumbley, Lawrence Murphy Smith and Laura Davis DeLaune that details the intricacies of fraud involving large corporations and firms. The book is written as a novel that portrays what is regarded as mundane auditing or accounting process in an extremely creative and interesting manner that captures the reader’s attention. The technique used to write the book helps shed light onto the inner workings of high level fraud in the corporate world, and the players involved. This paper seeks to provide a summary of the book by highlighting the key concepts and components addressed by the book. Fraud in the accounting world is best investigated and found out by accountants who are professionally trained and certified with what is referre d to as a certified public accountant (CPA) accreditation. According to Crumbley, Smith and DeLaune (7), CPAs are able to carry out what is referred to as an audit of firm’s annual or quarterly financial statements that serve to provide an opinion of the fairness of the statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). The accounting profession is guided by a strict code of conduct and ethics that should be adhered to continuously in order to maintain the integrity of their work and that of their clients. This is because auditors play a critical and vital role that requires them to be vigilant and objective in ensuring that a company’s shareholders’ interests are protected. Auditors also function to ensure that corporate and governance management act within their mandated responsibilities and duties to ensure that a firm’s daily operations are verified (Crumbley, Smith and DeLaune 8). Some of the world renowned accounting and auditing firms include KPMG, PricewaterCoopers, Deloitte and E & Y (8). In an organization, fraudulent behavior can be discerned through the observation of deviant or peculiar habits especially those that are related with money and transactions. Fraudulent employees and clients can easily be detected by observing their spending behaviors or tendencies, and looking for out of the way spending habits. According to Crumbley, Smith and DeLaune (12), an employee in one division of Coca Cola spent a considerable amount of money to buy his wife a bass boat. The wife cashed a check which she very well knew that her husband could not afford to have such an amount of money. The woman confessed that her husband made his work computer play songs that it should not been playing. This led to the suspicion of fraudulent behavior in the division involving this particular employee. This called for a forensic audit on the division’s financial statements and movement of dollar amounts within an d without the division. Overspending or under-spending monies are other ways of detecting suspicious behaviors of fraud perpetrators. This is so in the sense that if an individual deviates from their normal spending habits, it is usually a sign inconsistent and suspect financial behavior. Observation of these suspect financial behaviors can lead fraud investigators to establish a precedent that warrants them to launch